生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (4): 346-354.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.346

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆准噶尔荒漠短命植物群落特征及其水热适应性

袁素芬1,2, 唐海萍1,*()   

  1. 1 地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京师范大学资源学院, 北京 100875
    2 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-15 接受日期:2010-05-24 出版日期:2010-07-20 发布日期:2010-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐海萍
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: tanghp@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40435014)

Patterns of ephemeral plant communities and their adaptations to temperature and precipitation regimes in Dzungaria Desert, Xinjiang

Sufen Yuan1,2, Haiping Tang1,*()   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2010-01-15 Accepted:2010-05-24 Online:2010-07-20 Published:2010-07-20
  • Contact: Haiping Tang

摘要:

短命植物是一类利用短暂湿季快速生长的特殊植物类群, 包括一年生短命植物和类短命植物。作者在新疆北部准噶尔荒漠的莫索湾地区从2005-2008年进行了连续4年的群落调查研究, 通过25条样线201个样方的调查, 并结合同时段冬春季节的气温、降水资料, 探讨了短命植物对环境水热变化的适应性特征。结果表明: (1) 早春季节, 短命植物在准噶尔荒漠植物群落组成中占据优势地位, 物种数均占调查总物种数的52%左右; (2) 从群落优势种来看, 7种植物标准频度在40%以上, 其中6种是短命植物, 分别是旱麦草(Eremopyrum orientale)、卷果涩芥(Malcolmia scorpioides)、硬萼软紫草(Arnebia decumbens)、狭果鹤虱(Lappula semiglabra)、四齿芥(Tetracme quadricornis)和沙滨藜(Atriplex dimorphostegia); (3) 群落中短命植物萌发的个体数量与前一年冬季温度关系极为密切, 较低的冬季温度更易激发其萌发, 而当年群落外貌特征则更多地依赖于早春季节的降水, 若早春季节温度过低也会影响短命植物的萌发; (4) Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数年际间变化趋势与同期冬春降水总量变化趋势一致。总之, 温度和降水的不同配置是引起短命植物多样性发生年际变化的主要因素。

关键词: 群落外貌, 种的数量特征, 优势种, 频度, 多样性, 水热因子

Abstract

Ephemerals, including annual ephemerals and ephemeroid plants, are characterized by short-term growth rhythms and specific biological traits adapted to deserts or temperate broad-leaved deciduous forests. Few studies have been carried out on ephemeral community composition and their relationships with temperature and precipitation regimes in the desert. Between 2005 and 2008, we monitored early-spring ephemeral communities in 201 quadrats along 25 line transects in the Mosuowan area of the Dzungaria Desert, northern Xinjiang where ephemerals represent a special desert floral group. We also collected temperature and precipitation data to analyze the effects of these factors on ephemeral adaptation. We found that ephemerals dominated the plant community in early spring, accounting for 52% of species observed. Six of seven species with a frequency over 40% were ephemerals, they were Eremopyrum orientale,Malcolmia scorpioides,Arnebia decumbens, Lappula semiglabra, Tetracme quadricornis andAtriplex dimorphostegia. Abundance of ephemerals has closely negatively relationship with the winter temperature in the previous year, suggesting that low temperature in the previous winter facilitates sprouting of ephemerals in the current year. However, community structure depended more on temperature and precipitation in early spring in the current year than the previous year. Annual changes in Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices of these communities were consistent with annual changes in total amount of spring and winter precipitation. Therefore, variation in temperature and precipitation regimes is likely the main factor involved with inter-year changes in the structure of ephemeral plant communities in the Dzungaria Desert, Xinjiang.

Key words: physiognomy, species quantitative traits, dominant species, frequency, diversity, hydro-thermic factors, Dzungaria desert