生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (12): 1298-1308.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019157

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

滇西北高山微水体与溪流生境底栖动物多样性和环境特征

刘硕然1, 2, 3, 杨道德1, *(), 李先福2, 3, 4, 谭路4, 孙军5, 和晓阳5, 杨文书5, 任国鹏2, 3, Davide Fornacca2, 3, 蔡庆华4, 肖文2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所, 长沙 410004
    2 大理大学东喜玛拉雅研究院, 云南大理 671003
    3 中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心, 云南大理 671003
    4 中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430072
    5 高黎贡山国家级自然保护区贡山管理局, 云南怒江 673500
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-08 接受日期:2019-09-26 出版日期:2019-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨道德,肖文 E-mail:csfuyydd@126.com;xiaow@eastern-himalaya.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31760126);国家自然科学基金(U1602262);国家自然科学基金(31472021);云南省“大理大学三江并流区域生物多样性保护与利用省创新团队”和第二次青藏高原综合科学考察(SQ2019QZKK2002)

Diversity in benthic and environmental characteristics on alpine micro-waterbodies and stream ecosystems in northwest Yunnan

Shuoran Liu1, 2, 3, Daode Yang1, *(), Xianfu Li2, 3, 4, Lu Tan4, Jun Sun5, Xiaoyang He5, Wenshu Yang5, Guopeng Ren2, 3, Davide Fornacca2, 3, Qinghua Cai4, Wen Xiao2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Wildlife Conservation, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004
    2 Institute of Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Research, Dali University, Dali, Yunnan 671003
    3 Collaborative Innovation Center for Biodiversity and Conservation in the Three Parallel Rivers Region of China, Dali, Yunnan 671003
    4 State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    5 Gongshan Administration Bureau, Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve, Nujiang, Yunnan 673500
  • Received:2019-05-08 Accepted:2019-09-26 Online:2019-12-20
  • Contact: Yang Daode,Xiao Wen E-mail:csfuyydd@126.com;xiaow@eastern-himalaya.cn

高山微水体由于面积微小且通过地表径流形成串联结构常常被认为与高山溪流具有类似的生境, 然而由于这两类生境中环境因子与底栖动物多样性存在差异, 它们在生态系统中的作用可能完全不同。滇西北地区是全球生物多样性热点区域之一, 境内高山微水体和高山溪流分布密集, 在区域底栖生物多样性维持方面具有重要的功能, 然而目前对这两类高山淡水生态系统的研究较少。为了比较这两类生境环境因子的异同及其对底栖动物多样性的维持作用, 2015年6月, 作者在云南省怒江州贡山县的高山峡谷内, 对27个高山微水体和同区域分布的1条高山溪流(海拔高差500 m范围)的底栖动物多样性和水环境因子进行了实地调查。结果表明: (1)高山微水体和高山溪流底栖动物群落中优势分类单元种群数量均比较庞大, 而稀有分类单元数量较多且种群较小; (2)两种生境在环境因子、物种多样性、功能多样性和群落结构方面的差异明显, 高山溪流有较高的物种丰富度、物种多样性和功能多样性; (3)高山微水体底栖动物多样性的分布与水环境因子无关, 而高山溪流底栖动物多样性与群落结构的形成受到与流速关联的水环境因子和海拔的影响。因此, 高山微水体与高山溪流不能简单地视为类似的生境类型, 它们对区域底栖动物多样性和生态功能维持可能具有不同的作用。

关键词: 高山淡水生态系统, 环境异质性, 群落结构, 生物多样性维持, 高黎贡山

Due to the small area and the cascaded structure formed by surface water, alpine micro-waterbodies are often considered to have similar habitats to alpine streams. However, due to the differences between the environmental factors and the benthic diversity, the functions of these two habitats in the ecosystem may be completely different. Northwest Yunnan hosts one of the richest global biodiversity hotspots where alpine micro-waterbodies and streams are densely concentrated. These two fresh water ecosystems have important functions in regional benthic biodiversity maintenance, however, these peculiar freshwater ecosystems have barely received research attention. In order to compare the similarities and differences of environmental factors and biodiversity between these two habitats and their maintenance effects on benthic diversity, in this study, benthic biodiversity and the environmental factors of 27 alpine micro-waterbodies and a stream in the same region (9 sample sites within an altitude gradient of 500 m) were investigated in an alpine valley of Gongshan County, Nujiang, Yunnan Province in June of 2015. Results showed that: (1) The common characteristics of benthic communities in alpine micro-waterbodies and the stream were that the dominant taxa have large population size, while, the rare taxa had higher richness but small population size. (2) However, the environmental factors, species diversity, functional diversity and community structures were quite different between the alpine micro-waterbodies and the stream, the alpine stream had higher species richness, species diversity and functional diversity than alpine micro-waterbodies. (3) the benthic biodiversity and formation of community structure in alpine stream were related to the elevation and aquatic environmental factors relating to flow rate regulation, while, the aquatic environmental factors of alpine micro-waterbodies did not act as the drivers for the distribution of benthic biodiversity. Therefore, these findings suggest that alpine micro-waterbodies and streams are distinct ecosystems that each feature has very different characteristics, they cannot be regarded as similar ecosystem types. Both of them play an important role in the maintenance of regional benthic biodiversity and ecosystem functions.

Key words: alpine freshwater ecosystem, environmental heterogeneity, community structure, biodiversity maintenance, Gaoligong Mountain

图1

研究区域及样点图示(微水体串联图示中圈内的微水体串最终与溪流连通)"

表1

溪流与微水体各环境因子描述及差异性分析"

环境因子
Environmental variables
微水体 Micro-waterbody 溪流 Stream
最小值
Min.
最大值
Max.
平均值 ± 标准差
Mean ± SD
最小值
Min.
最大值
Max.
平均值 ± 标准差
Mean ± SD
海拔 Alt (m) ns2 3,266.00 3,332.00 3,299.70 ± 27.34 3,087.00 3,586.00 3,364.90 ± 188.82
电导率 Cond (μs/cm) **2 2.94 10.45 5.12 ± 1.33 10.82 34.50 17.54 ± 8.84
溶解氧含量 DO (mg/L) **1 3.13 7.51 5.68 ± 0.92 6.22 7.18 6.72 ± 0.27
pH值 pH **1 5.48 6.20 5.84 ± 0.24 5.80 6.55 6.23 ± 0.26
面积 Area (m2) none 3.00 160.00 26.15 ± 33.65 / / /
水深 Depth (cm) *1 8.00 43.00 27.70 ± 10.09 6.00 26.00 18.33 ± 6.48
底泥深度 BSD (cm) none 9.50 58.00 26.09 ± 13.02 / / /
浊度 Turb (NTU) ns1 0.00 3.70 1.42 ± 1.08 0.00 2.40 0.98 ± 1.06
总氮 TN (mg/L) ns1 0.096 0.729 0.300 ± 0.170 0.115 0.445 0.280 ± 0.110
总磷 TP (mg/L) ns1 0.024 0.104 0.046 ± 0.016 0.036 0.068 0.050 ± 0.010
化学需氧量 COD (mg/L) *1 0.160 4.730 2.150 ± 1.290 0.160 5.056 3.320 ± 1.420
总有机碳含量 TOC (mg/L) ns1 0.924 7.590 4.270 ± 1.640 3.043 6.963 4.800 ± 1.070
溪流宽度 Width (m) none / / / 0.50 5.30 2.53 ±1.78
溪流流速 FV (m/s) none / / / 0.16 0.93 0.58 ± 0.31

图2

基于环境因子的PCoA双标图。AS为溪流样点, AU、AD为微水体样点。Depth: 水深; Area: 面积; Width: 溪流宽度; FV:流速; Cond: 电导率; Turb: 浊度。"

图3

高山微水体(A)及溪流(B)分类单元多度排序曲线(箭头所示为曲线拐点, 作为优势分类单元与稀有分类单元分界), 横坐标为物种排列顺序,对应附录1。"

图4

底栖动物物种在样点间分布热图(分类单元物种多度以颜色深浅区分)"

图5

溪流与微水体分类单元丰富度维恩图"

表2

溪流与微水体底栖动物群落的物种丰富度(S)、物种多样性(H')和功能多样性(FDis)"

微水体 Micro-waterbody 溪流 Stream
最小值
Min.
最大值
Max.
平均值 ±
标准差
Mean ± SD
最小

Min.
最大

Max.
平均值 ±
标准差
Mean ± SD
S ns1 3.00 10.00 6.26 ± 2.07 3.00 12.00 8.67 ± 3.43
H' *1 0.882 1.649 1.240 ± 0.250 1.011 2.265 1.720 ± 0.460
FDis **1 0.000 0.469 0.220 ± 0.130 0.544 0.968 0.820 ± 0.130

图6

基于底栖动物群落数据和环境因子的CCA双标图。AS为溪流样点, AU、AD为微水体样点。Alt: 海拔; FV: 流速; Cond: 电导率。"

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