生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 376-384.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019116

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通过遗传多样性探讨极小种群野生植物的致濒机理及保护策略: 以裸子植物为例

苏金源1,燕语1,李冲2,李丹2,杜芳1,*   

  1. 1. 北京林业大学林学院, 北京 100083
    2. 本溪市林业局, 辽宁本溪 117001
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-03 接受日期:2019-08-08 出版日期:2020-03-20 发布日期:2019-12-27
  • 通讯作者: 杜芳
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503100 “极小种群野生植物回归技术研究与示范”课题2016YFC0503106)

Informing conservation strategies with genetic diversity in Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations: A review on gymnosperms

Jinyuan Su1,Yu Yan1,Chong Li2,Dan Li2,Fang K. Du1,*   

  1. 1. College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2. Forestry Bureau of Benxi, Benxi, Liaoning 117001
  • Received:2019-04-03 Accepted:2019-08-08 Online:2020-03-20 Published:2019-12-27
  • Contact: Fang K. Du

摘要:

遗传多样性是生物多样性的重要组成部分, 然而由于资源的过度开发利用和生境的破碎化影响了物种的遗传多样性, 甚至威胁到物种的生存适应性和生物多样性。极小种群野生植物是亟待保护的国家重点保护濒危植物,遗传多样性研究对揭示极小种群致濒机理及保护策略具有重要意义。生境破碎化会造成物种遗传多样性降低、种群间分化增加、基因流减少等, 使种群濒危。但在某些物种中, 繁殖特征、进化历史等生物和生态因素的不同也可能造成近期生境破碎化后遗传效应的延迟。裸子植物进化历史悠久, 包含许多孑遗物种, 由于生活史周期长, 遭受生境破碎化后可能短期内显示不出遗传效应的改变, 但长期很难恢复。本文以裸子植物为例综述了濒危植物的遗传多样性研究的案例, 探讨了濒危裸子植物应对环境恶化的维持机制、致濒因素和保护方案, 旨在说明通过遗传多样性研究充分认识极小种群致濒机理对高效保护极小种群野生植物的重要性。

关键词: 极小种群野生植物, 裸子植物, 遗传多样性, 致濒机理, 保护策略

Abstract:

Genetic diversity is an important component of biodiversity. However, the overexploitation of natural resources and habitat fragmentation have severely degraded the genetic diversity of many affected species. Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP) are in urgent need of rescue, their genetic diversity are of great significance for studying the endangerment mechanism and providing conservation strategies. Habitat fragmentation might reduce genetic diversity, increase genetic differentiation among populations or limit gene flow. However, biological and ecological factors of threatened species, such as the reproductive characteristic and the demographic history, may also impact the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation. For gymnosperms, genetic composition can be quite stable when facing habitat fragmentation because of their lengthy generation time. However, in the long term, the loss of genetic diversity will be unrecoverable. In this review paper, we survey genetic studies of threatened gymnosperms, summarize endangerment mechanisms under habitat fragmentation, and finally recommend conservation strategies for gymnosperms. The findings of this paper indicate that a comprehensive understanding of the endangerment mechanisms through genetic diversity studies is important for effective and efficient conservation of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations.

Key words: Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), gymnosperms, genetic diversity, endangerment mechanism, conservation strategy