生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (12): 1350-1357.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018257

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国生物多样性相关传统知识调查与评估指标体系构建

刘冬梅1, 薛达元2,*(), 蔡蕾3, 李俊生1,*(), 肖能文1   

  1. 1 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    2 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    3 生态环境部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-21 接受日期:2018-12-05 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2019-02-12
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元,李俊生
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(2096001006)

Establishing a national indicator system in China for the assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity

Dongmei Liu1, Dayuan Xue2,*(), Lei Cai3, Junsheng Li1,*(), Nengwen Xiao1   

  1. 1 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 College of Life and Environmental Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    3 Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2018-09-21 Accepted:2018-12-05 Online:2018-12-20 Published:2019-02-12
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan,Li Junsheng
  • About author:# 同等贡献作者 Contributed equally to this work

摘要:

基于调查获得的数据开展生物多样性相关传统知识评估, 明确面临的主要压力和保护空缺, 可为相关管理部门决策提供科学依据。指标是开展评估的主要工具, 但是目前尚未有关于生物多样性相关传统知识评估指标体系的文献报道。我们基于压力-状态-响应(pressure-state-response, PSR)模型, 充分考虑生物多样性相关传统知识的基本特征、主要威胁因子、保护和传承措施, 初步构建了区域和国家尺度的生物多样性相关传统知识评估指标体系。然后通过专家咨询, 确定了30项指标, 其中压力指标7项、状态指标14项、响应指标9项。这些指标不仅可以用于生物多样性相关传统知识的综合评估, 还可以对其基本状况、受威胁状况、保护与传承状况、相关遗传资源进行单独评价。此外, 基于评估参数计算的数据需求, 我们借鉴国内外民族植物学和生物多样性相关传统知识调查的主要研究成果, 建立了“全国生物多样性相关传统知识调查技术方法体系”, 并通过试点调查进行修改完善。 “全国生物多样性相关传统知识调查”以关键人物访谈、问卷调查和参与观察为主, 并辅以生物学和生态学调查; 采用滚雪球抽样法对目标群体进行抽样, 确定访谈对象。

关键词: 生物多样性相关传统知识, 评估, 指标, PSR, 调查

Abstract:

More data needs to be collected to assess the wide range of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity to identify the key pressures on diversity today and also highlight protection gaps for decision makers in biodiversity conservation. An indicator system is a useful tool in scientific assessments, yet few studies have made use of them. An indicator system to assess traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity was preliminarily established at a regional and national scale based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model, taking into account major players, species threats, existing measures for protection and transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. Through expert consultation, 30 indicators were identified, including 7 pressure indicators, 14 status indicators and 9 response indicators. These indicators could be used for a comprehensive assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, and also could also be applied to a separate assessment concerning the basic status of threats to biodiversity, current protections, the transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity and relevant genetic resources. Moreover, “The National Technology and Methodology System for Surveying Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity” was developed based on the results of “The National Survey on Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity”, which combined interviews with key figures, questionnaire responses and participatory observations and was supplemented by scientifically-derived biological and ecological knowledge. Interviewees were identified from target groups using snowball sampling. This system was developed according to parameters drawing on the results of surveys on ethnobotanical and traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity at home and abroad. The system was then piloted and modified accordingly.

Key words: traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, assessment, indicator, PSR, survey