生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (12): 1350-1357.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018257

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中国生物多样性相关传统知识调查与评估指标体系构建

刘冬梅1, 薛达元2, *(), 蔡蕾3, 李俊生1, *(), 肖能文1   

  1. 1 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    2 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    3 生态环境部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-21 接受日期:2018-12-05 出版日期:2018-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元,李俊生 E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com;lijsh@craes.org.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金项目:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(2096001006)

Establishing a national indicator system in China for the assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity

Dongmei Liu1, Dayuan Xue2, *(), Lei Cai3, Junsheng Li1, *(), Nengwen Xiao1   

  1. 1 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 College of Life and Environmental Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    3 Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2018-09-21 Accepted:2018-12-05 Online:2018-12-20
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan,Li Junsheng E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com;lijsh@craes.org.cn
  • About author:# 同等贡献作者 Contributed equally to this work

基于调查获得的数据开展生物多样性相关传统知识评估, 明确面临的主要压力和保护空缺, 可为相关管理部门决策提供科学依据。指标是开展评估的主要工具, 但是目前尚未有关于生物多样性相关传统知识评估指标体系的文献报道。我们基于压力-状态-响应(pressure-state-response, PSR)模型, 充分考虑生物多样性相关传统知识的基本特征、主要威胁因子、保护和传承措施, 初步构建了区域和国家尺度的生物多样性相关传统知识评估指标体系。然后通过专家咨询, 确定了30项指标, 其中压力指标7项、状态指标14项、响应指标9项。这些指标不仅可以用于生物多样性相关传统知识的综合评估, 还可以对其基本状况、受威胁状况、保护与传承状况、相关遗传资源进行单独评价。此外, 基于评估参数计算的数据需求, 我们借鉴国内外民族植物学和生物多样性相关传统知识调查的主要研究成果, 建立了“全国生物多样性相关传统知识调查技术方法体系”, 并通过试点调查进行修改完善。 “全国生物多样性相关传统知识调查”以关键人物访谈、问卷调查和参与观察为主, 并辅以生物学和生态学调查; 采用滚雪球抽样法对目标群体进行抽样, 确定访谈对象。

关键词: 生物多样性相关传统知识, 评估, 指标, PSR, 调查

More data needs to be collected to assess the wide range of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity to identify the key pressures on diversity today and also highlight protection gaps for decision makers in biodiversity conservation. An indicator system is a useful tool in scientific assessments, yet few studies have made use of them. An indicator system to assess traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity was preliminarily established at a regional and national scale based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model, taking into account major players, species threats, existing measures for protection and transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. Through expert consultation, 30 indicators were identified, including 7 pressure indicators, 14 status indicators and 9 response indicators. These indicators could be used for a comprehensive assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, and also could also be applied to a separate assessment concerning the basic status of threats to biodiversity, current protections, the transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity and relevant genetic resources. Moreover, “The National Technology and Methodology System for Surveying Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity” was developed based on the results of “The National Survey on Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity”, which combined interviews with key figures, questionnaire responses and participatory observations and was supplemented by scientifically-derived biological and ecological knowledge. Interviewees were identified from target groups using snowball sampling. This system was developed according to parameters drawing on the results of surveys on ethnobotanical and traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity at home and abroad. The system was then piloted and modified accordingly.

Key words: traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, assessment, indicator, PSR, survey

表1

生物多样性相关传统知识评估指标体系及评估参数"

指标类别
Indicator categories
评估指标
Assessment indicators
评估参数
Assessment parameters
压力
Pressure
经济效益影响
Impact of economic benefits
因经济效益差而遭淘汰的传统知识数量
Number of the TK (traditional knowledge) entries eliminated due to poor economic benefits
外来文化影
Influence of foreign cultures
受外来文化严重影响的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries influenced seriously by foreign cultures
生境丧失
Habitat loss
因外来种入侵和环境污染等破坏相关遗传资源的生境, 导致其生境丧失的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries lost along with deteriorated habitats, which relevant genetic resources depend on. The root causes for habitat deteriorating include alien invasive species, environmental pollution, etc.
过度开发利用影响
Eeffect of overexploitation
已遭受过度开发利用影响的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries affected by overexploitation
土地利用变化
Land use change
受土地利用变化影响的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries affected by land use change
自然灾害影响
Impact of natural disasters
已遭受自然灾害影响的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries impacted by natural disasters
传承有效性
Validity of inheritance
尚无传承措施的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries without inheritance measures
状态
State



丰富度 Diversity 传统知识总数量 Number of total TK entries
历史悠久性
History
具有100年以上历史的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries which could date back to more than 100 years
分布特征
Distribution patterns
仅在1-2个乡镇分布的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries distributed only in 1-2 townships
经济价值
Economic value
具有高、中等级经济价值的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries with high or medium economic value
社会文化价值
Socio-cultural value
具有高、中等级社会文化价值传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries with high or medium socio-cultural value
特有性 Endemism 区域特有的传统知识数量 Number of the TK entries endemic to the region
开发利用现状
Exploitation status
已具备规模商业化开发的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries involved in large-scale commercialized development
传承情况
Inheritance situation
已认定传承人的传统知识的数量
Number of the TK entries that have been identified as inheritors
民族拥有情况
Ownership by ethnic minorities
少数民族创造并持有的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries created and owned by ethnic minorities
社区拥有情况
Ownership by
local communities
已明确地方社区拥有的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries with clear ownership by local communities
濒危程度
Degree of extinction risk
相关遗传资源受到严重威胁呈濒危状态的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries which associated genetic resources are threatened and endangered
丧失情况 Extinct TK 近30年已丧失的传统知识数量 Number of the extinct TK entries in past 30 years
流失情况 Be lost abroad 已流失国外的传统知识数量 Number of the TK entries that have been lost abroad
保护传承空缺
Gaps in protection
and inheritance measures
无任何保护和传承措施的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries without any protection and inheritance measures
响应
Response
国际法保护
Protected by international laws and agreements
受CITES、《生物多样性公约》、《保护世界文化与自然遗产公约》、《波恩公约》等国际法保护的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Bonn Convention, etc.
国家法规保护
Protected by domestic
laws and regulations
受野生动物保护法、野生植物保护条例、非物质文化遗产法、自然保护区条例、畜牧法、种子法、中医药法等国家法规保护的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by Law of Wild Animal Protection, Wild Plants Protection Regulation, Intangible Cultural Heritage Law, Nature Reserve Regulation, Animal Industry Law, Seed Law, Traditional Chinese Medicine Law, etc.
标类别
Indicator categories
评估指标
Assessment indicators
评估参数
Assessment parameters
响应
Response
知识产权保护
Protected by
intellectual property rights
具有知识产权(专利、地理标志、商标、著作权等)保护的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by intellectual property legislation of patents, geographical indications, trademarks, copyrights, etc.
政策措施
Policy measures
具有国家和地方政策保护(资金投入机制、激励政策、惠益分享等)的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by national and local policies, including investment mechanism, incentive policy, benefit sharing, etc.
文化保护
Cultural protection
受传统文化(如习惯法、节庆等)、宗教方式(如祭祀、神山、神林等)保护的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by traditional culture (customary law, rituals, etc.) and religious beliefs (sacrifice, sacred mountain, sacred forest, etc.)
工程措施
Engineering measures
受自然保护区、国家公园、风景名胜区、自然遗产地、农业文化遗产地、森林公园、湿地公园、自然保护点等就地保护措施和动物园、植物园、种质资源圃、人工繁育基地、水族馆等迁地保护措施保护的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by in situ conservation (nature reserves, national parks, scenic spots, natural heritage sites, agricultural and cultural heritage sites, forest parks, wetland parks, natural protection zones, etc.) and ex situ conservation (zoos, botanical gardens, germplasm resource gardens, artificial breeding bases, aquariums, etc.)
社区保护
Local community protection
受传统知识所在地方社区群体自发保护的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries voluntarily protected by local communities
家族保护
Protected by
clanship protection
受家族保护(祖传秘方等)的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by clans, such as the ancestral secret recipe
社会组织
Social organization
受民间非政府组织和私营企业等社会团体保护的传统知识数量
Number of the TK entries protected by social groups such as non-governmental organizations and private enterprises
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