生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 51-63.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018182

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于土地利用变化情景的生态系统服务价值评估: 以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例

孙孝平1, 李双1, 余建平3, 方彦君4, 张银龙1, *(), 曹铭昌2, *()   

  1. 1 南京林业大学, 江苏省南方现代林业协同创新中心, 南京 210037
    2 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
    3 钱江源国家公园生态资源保护中心, 浙江开化 324300
    4 浙江省开化县环境保护局, 浙江开化 324300
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-02 接受日期:2018-12-24 出版日期:2019-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 张银龙,曹铭昌 E-mail:ecoenvylz@163.com;caomingc@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0507202);国家重点研发计划(2017YFC050380604);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项(县市自然资源资产负债表编制技术与示范);福建省环保科技计划“福建省生物多样性保护网络优化技术研究(2017R027);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目

Evaluation of ecosystem service value based on land use scenarios: A case study of Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Sun Xiaoping1, Li Shuang1, Yu Jianping3, Fang Yanjun4, Zhang Yinlong1, *(), Cao Mingchang2, *()   

  1. 1 Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing 210042;
    3 Center of Ecology and Resources, Qianjiangyuan National Park, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
    4 Kaihua Environmental Protection Bureau, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
  • Received:2018-07-02 Accepted:2018-12-24 Online:2019-01-20
  • Contact: Zhang Yinlong,Cao Mingchang E-mail:ecoenvylz@163.com;caomingc@163.com

土地利用变化是生物多样性与生态系统服务变化的主要原因之一。评估土地利用变化对生物多样与生态系统服务影响对于政府决策具有重要作用。钱江源国家公园体制试点区是钱塘江的源头, 也是国家的重点生态功能区。本研究以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为研究区, 首先设计自然发展情景、规划情景、生态保护情景和开发利用情景等4种2025年不同土地利用变化情景, 随后采用InVEST模型和CLUE-S模型分析不同情景下钱江源国家公园水资源供给、涵养水源、固碳释氧、土壤保持、环境净化和生境质量等生态系统服务及其价值变化。结果表明: (1)核心保护区和生态保育区的生态系统服务价值占钱江源国家公园总价值的88.30%。(2)生态保护情景下钱江源国家公园生态系统服务价值最高, 有129.17亿元; 规划情景下生态系统服务价值次之, 有126.92亿元。(3)规划情景下钱江源国家公园水资源供给服务优于生态保护情景, 其他生态系统服务则次于生态保护情景。考虑到钱江源国家公园为下游提供重要的水资源这一功能, 将规划情景作为试点区2025年最优的土地利用变化情景。

关键词: 生态系统服务, 土地利用变化情景, InVEST模型, CLUE-S模型

Land use change is one of the main drivers to change of biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is important for decision-making of government to assess impacts of land use change on biodiversity and ecosystem service. The Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot (QNPP), located at the headwaters of the Qiangtang River, covers 252 km 2, and it is also a National Key Ecological Function Zone. In this study, We designed four land use change scenarios in 2025 for QNPP, i.e., business as usual, strategic planning, ecological protection, and development. Furthermore, the change in ecosystem services and its value in QNPP were evaluated under four scenarios by InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) model and CLUE-S (Conversions of Land Use and its Effects at Small Regional Extent) model. The ecosystem services in this assessment include water yield, water conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, soil conservation, environmental purification, and habitat quality. Our results show that: (1) the value of ecosystem services in core protected areas and ecological conservation areas accounts for 88.30% of total value of QNPP; (2) the value of ecosystem services of QNPP in the ecological protection scenario is the highest (12.917 billion RMB yuan), and ranks the second in the strategic planning scenario (12.692 billion RMB yuan); and (3) the water yield in the strategic planning scenario is superior to that in the ecological protection scenario, while other ecosystem services are inferior to that in the ecological protection scenario. Strategic planning scenario is an optimal land use strategy in 2025 since QNPP play a key role in providing water resources for the downstream.

Key words: ecosystem service, land use change scenarios, InVEST model, CLUE-S Model

图1

钱江源国家公园土地利用类型图。(a) 2010年; (b) 2015年。"

表1

2015-2025年钱江源国家公园土地利用类型面积"

土地利用类型
Land use type (ha)
2015 自然发展情景
Business as usual
规划情景
Strategic planning
生态保护情景
Ecological protection
开发利用情景
Development
阔叶林 Broad-leaved forest 17,166.9 17,369.7 17,962.9 19,074.8 17,123.6
针叶林 Coniferous forest 4,670.1 4,655.0 4,634.3 4,383.9 4,652.9
针阔混交林 Mixed broadleaf-conifer forest 1,412.2 1,409.2 1,286.7 1,248.8 1,404.1
灌木林 Shrubbery 957.3 953.3 665.8 124.4 937.6
园地 Garden 24.2 23.6 11.1 13.3 18.9
草丛 Grassland 159.9 158.4 154.8 39.7 151.1
水田 Paddy field 388.4 234.9 142.0 13.1 306.2
旱地 Dry land 98.6 96.9 13.8 3.8 79.9
水域 Water area 148.0 120.4 148.5 148.0 148.0
建设用地 Built-up land 57.3 59.3 65.3 36.4 263.5
裸地 Unused land 4.1 6.3 1.8 0.8 1.2
合计 Total 25,087 25,087 25,087 25,087 25,087

图2

钱江源国家公园体制试点区2025年土地利用类型图。(a)自然发展情景; (b)规划情景; (c)生态保护情景; (d)开发利用情景。"

表2

2015年各功能分区生态系统服务的物质量"

核心保护区
Core protection area
生态保育区
Ecological
conservation area
游憩展示区
Recreation area
传统利用区
Traditional utilization area
供给服务 Provisioning services
水资源供给 Water yield (×104 m3) 6,721.613 19,460.106 682.811 4,457.063
调节服务 Regulating services
涵养水源 Water conservation (×104 m3) 639.814 840.122 59.338 136.947
土壤保持 Soil conservation (×104 t) 546.608 721.516 29.546 96.026
固碳量 Carbon sequestration (×104 t) 183.773 258.128 13.635 34.921
释氧量 Oxygen release (×104 t) 135.294 190.033 10.038 25.708
环境净化 Environment purification
SO2吸收 SO2 absorption (t) 996.312 1,504.517 104.472 225.932
滞尘清理 Clean detaining dust (×104 t) 11.553 22.016 0.738 1.874
N输出量 Nitrogen output (t) 11.198 31.121 12.083 59.054
P输出量 Phosphorus output (t) 0.466 1.411 0.418 2.262
栖息地服务 Supporting services
生境质量得分 Habitat quality 0.936 0.888 0.855 0.815
最优生境质量面积 Area of the optimal habitat quality (km2) 70.633 89.032 3.845 8.933

图3

2015年各功能分区生态系统服务价值及其比例。(a)生态系统服务价值; (b)生态系统服务价值比例。"

表3

不同土地利用情景下生态系统服务的物质量"

2015 自然发展情景
Business as usual
规划情景
Strategic planning
生态保护情景
Ecological protection
开发利用情景
Development
供给服务 Provisioning services
水资源供给 Water yield (×104 m3) 31,321.593 31,306.852 31,199.755 30,900.282 31,355.505
调节服务 Regulating services
涵养水源 Water conservation (×104 m3) 1,676.222 1,682.344 1,687.435 1,665.958 1,674.278
土壤保持 Soil conservation (×104 t) 1,393.696 1,394.248 1,394.778 1,395.213 1,394.026
固碳释氧 Carbon fixation and oxygen release
固碳量 Carbon sequestration (×104 t) 490.457 492.860 499.544 514.359 488.556
释氧量 Oxygen release (×104 t) 361.073 362.841 367.762 378.669 359.673
环境净化 Environment purification
SO2吸收 SO2 absorption (t) 2,831.233 2,853.432 2,902.315 3,005.724 2,822.379
滞尘清理 Clean detaining dust (×104 t) 36.181 36.328 36.548 36.689 36.059
N输出量 Nitrogen output (t) 113.456 90.301 59.424 42.602 94.647
P输出量 Phosphorus output (t) 4.557 3.507 2.206 1.463 3.700
栖息地服务 Supporting services
生境质量得分 Habitat quality 0.938 0.941 0.954 0.968 0.934
最优生境质量面积 Area of the optimal habitat quality (km2) 172.443 174.480 179.253 190.691 170.635

图4

不同土地利用情景下的生态系统服务价值。(a)各生态系统服务价值(万元); (b)生态系统服务总价值(万元)。"

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