生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (5): 617-628.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020271

• 研究报告: 生态系统多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于InVEST与倾向评分匹配模型评估秦岭国家级自然保护区水源涵养服务保护成效

曹明1,2, 李俊生1,2, 王伟1,2,*(), 夏聚一1,2,3, 冯春婷1,2, 付刚1,2, 黄文婕1,2, 刘方正1,2   

  1. 1.中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    2.中国环境科学研究院生物多样性研究中心, 北京 100012
    3.中国人民大学环境学院, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-07 接受日期:2020-11-04 出版日期:2021-05-20 发布日期:2020-12-31
  • 通讯作者: 王伟
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: wang.wei@craes.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503304)

Assessing the effectiveness of water retention ecosystem service in Qinling National Nature Reserve based on InVEST and propensity score matching model

Ming Cao1,2, Junsheng Li1,2, Wei Wang1,2,*(), Juyi Xia1,2,3, Chunting Feng1,2, Gang Fu1,2, Wenjie Huang1,2, Fangzheng Liu1,2   

  1. 1 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    3 School of Environment & Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872
  • Received:2020-07-07 Accepted:2020-11-04 Online:2021-05-20 Published:2020-12-31
  • Contact: Wei Wang

摘要:

自然保护区在保障水源涵养等生态系统服务方面发挥了重要作用, 对区域水资源的可持续利用具有重要意义。然而, 自然保护区水源涵养服务保护成效的主要影响因素仍然不清, 不利于自然保护区的有效管理和区域可持续发展目标的实现。本文拟探讨: (1)秦岭区域水源涵养服务的总体情况; (2)自然保护区对水源涵养服务的保护成效; (3)自然保护区水源涵养服务保护成效的主要影响因素是什么。本文采用InVEST模型计算秦岭区域19个国家级自然保护区2010-2015年的水源涵养量, 基于倾向评分配比法研究了自然保护区水源涵养服务保护成效, 并通过随机森林回归判断自然保护区水源涵养服务保护成效的主要影响因素。研究结果表明, 虽然在2010-2015年秦岭区域水源涵养服务整体降低, 但与自然保护区外的配对样本相比, 大多数自然保护区(63.16%)水源涵养服务保护成效显著(N = 12, P < 0.05); 少数保护区(26.32%)在减缓水源涵养服务降低的作用不如自然保护区外(N = 5, P < 0.05); 也有个别自然保护区(10.52%)对水源涵养服务保护成效不明显(N = 2, P > 0.05)。从主要影响因素来看, 自然保护区水源涵养服务保护成效主要受降水量变化和自然保护区资金投入的影响。结果显示: (1) 2010-2015年间秦岭区域水源涵养量减少较为明显, 但总体来看自然保护区在减缓水源涵养服务降低方面取得了积极成效。(2)降水量变化对水源涵养服务保护成效起到主导作用; (3)管理因素也对保护区水源涵养服务保护成效有一定影响, 在管理因素中资金投入的大小对水源涵养服务保护效果影响最大。因此, 建议进一步增加资金投入, 以提升自然保护区水源涵养服务的保护成效。

关键词: 保护成效评估, 倾向评分配比, 生态系统服务, 随机森林, 资金投入

Abstract

Aims: Nature reserves (NRs) play an important role in ensuring ecosystem services such as water retention, which are of great significance for the sustainable use of regional water resources. However, the main factors influencing the effectiveness of water retention in NRs are still unclear, which is not conducive to the effective management of NRs and the achievement of regional sustainable development goals. Therefore, the aims of this research are to explore: (1) the overall situation of water retention services in Qinling Mountains; (2) the conservation effectiveness of water retention services in NRs; and (3) the key influencing factors of the conservation effectiveness of water retention services in NRs.
Methods: Here, we used the InVEST model to calculate the water retention between 2010 and 2015 in Qinling Mountains related to 19 national nature reserves. Based on the propensity score matching approach, we assessed the conservation effectiveness of these nature reserves in ensuring the ecosystem service of water retention. We then used the random forest regression model to identify the factors that mainly affect the conservation effectiveness.
Results: The results showed that the water retention ecosystem service in Qinling Mountains generally reduced between 2010 and 2015. Compared with the matched samples outside the NRs, most reserves (63.16%) showed significant positive effects on water retention (N = 12, P < 0.05), while some reserves (26.32%) showed significant negative effects (N = 5, P < 0.05). There were also two reserves (10.52%) that had no significant effects on water retention (N = 2, P > 0.05). In addition, the conservation effectiveness of reserves in ensuring water retention was mainly affected by changes in precipitation and funding investment.
Conclusions: (1) Between 2010 and 2015, the water retention rate was reduced remarkably in Qinling Mountains, but the NRs had achieved positive effectiveness in mitigating the reduction of water retention in general; (2) Changes in precipitation play a dominant role in sustaining the ecosystem service of water retention; and (3) The management factors also affect the conservation effectiveness to certain extent, in which the amount of investment is the most important. Therefore, we suggest increasing capital investment in the future to improve the conservation effectiveness of water retention service of NRs.

Key words: conservation effectiveness assessment, propensity score matching, ecosystem services, random forest model, funding investment