生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1114-1122.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017057

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于红外相机网络促进我国鸟类多样性监测: 现状、问题与前景

朱淑怡, 段菲, 李晟*()   

  1. 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-03 接受日期:2017-08-23 出版日期:2017-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 李晟 E-mail:shengli@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项(MM-2016-026)

Promoting diversity inventory and monitoring of birds through the camera-trapping network in China: status, challenges and future outlook

Shuyi Zhu, Fei Duan, Sheng Li*()   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2017-08-03 Accepted:2017-08-23 Online:2017-10-20
  • Contact: Li Sheng E-mail:shengli@pku.edu.cn

近20年来, 红外相机调查技术在我国生物多样性监测与野生动物研究中得到了广泛应用。已有的红外相机调查不仅关注哺乳动物类群, 而且也记录到了大量鸟类物种, 但大多被作为兽类监测中的兼捕(by-catch)记录。我们系统检索并收集了1992年以来, 在我国使用红外相机技术的野生动物监测与研究所发表的学术文献、会议报告、新闻报道和部分未发表数据集共230篇(份), 从中提取并汇总鸟类物种与分布记录。结果显示, 全国通过红外相机技术共记录到至少393个鸟种, 分属17目56科, 占全国鸟类物种总数的28.67%, 其中雀形目物种数最多(268种)。在科的水平上, 记录到物种数最多的分别是鸫科(58种)、画眉科(50种)与雉科(42种); 另有23科各仅记录到1个物种。在物种数及探测数方面, 地面及林下层活动的森林鸟类均是红外相机记录到的绝对优势类群。已发表的红外相机鸟类记录具有区域性不均衡的特征, 四川(16个)和云南(14个)是红外相机调查点最多的省区, 而四川(160种)、云南(91种)和浙江(66种)则是记录到鸟类物种数最多的省区。据不完全统计, 红外相机共记录到区域性鸟类物种新记录104种(次)。考虑到仍有大量红外相机调查中的鸟类记录被忽视或未及发表报道, 我国红外相机所记录到的实际鸟类物种多样性应该更高。这些结果表明, 红外相机技术在我国鸟类多样性监测和区域性编目工作中具有重要的作用, 可以提供高精度、高质量和大数据量的鸟类物种分布数据。对于以鸡形目为代表的地栖鸟类, 可以作为目标类群之一纳入现有的基于红外相机技术的标准化长期监测体系, 而这样的监测体系也可以为其他鸟类类群的多样性编目和监测提供数据补充和支持。

关键词: 生物多样性监测, 红外相机, 鸟类编目, 地栖鸟类, 监测网络

During the past two decades, camera-trapping has been widely used in biodiversity monitoring and wildlife research across China. Most of the existing camera-trapping projects focus on mammals, and birds are frequently considered in by-catch records. We analyzed 230 wildlife camera-trapping research projects in China since 1992, on the basis of an exhaustive review of Chinese and English literature, including published articles, conference reports, public news, and additional unpublished datasets. Results showed that at least 393 wild bird species, belonging to 17 orders and 56 families and accounting for 28.67% of the total number of bird species in China, have been documented using camera-trapping since 1992. The order with the most recorded species was Passeriformes (268). On the family level, Turdidae had the highest number of recorded species (58), followed by Timaliidae (50) and Phasianidae (42). There were 23 families that each only had one recorded species. Ground- and understory-dwelling forest birds accounted for the majority of all birds recorded, in terms of either species richness or camera detections. Published bird records were characterized by regional imbalances. Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were the most surveyed provinces, with 16 and 14 sites, respectively. The highest species richness was recorded in Sichuan (160), followed by Yunnan (91) and Zhejiang (66). A total of 104 new regionally recorded species were reported. Given the fact that there is still an abundance of camera-trapping data that has not been published, we speculated that the actual recorded bird species should be higher. These results indicated that camera-trapping can produce considerable bird distribution data of high accuracy, high quality and large amounts, which may provide a significant contribution to biodiversity monitoring and regional inventories of birds in China. Terrestrial birds, including Galliformes, Turdidae and Timaliidae, should be included as one of the target groups in current and future monitoring networks using standardized camera-trapping techniques, and such networks could also complement data and support the inventory and diversity monitoring of other taxa.

Key words: biodiversity monitoring, camera-trapping, bird inventory, terrestrial birds, monitoring network

表1

我国红外相机记录到的鸟类物种组成"

类群
Taxonomic group
红外相机记录物种数
No. of recorded species
全国物种数
Total no. of species in China

%
类群
Taxonomic group
红外相机记录物种数
No. of recorded species
全国物种数Total no. of species in China %
鸡形目 Galliformes 45 63 71.43 燕雀科 Fringillidae 24 57 42.11
雁形目 Anseriformes 5 51 9.80 雀科 Passeridae 3 13 23.08
?形目 Piciformes 10 42 23.81 旋木雀科 Certhiidae 1 5 20.00
鸮形目 Strigiformes 12 31 38.71 八色鸫科 Pittidae 6 9 66.67
隼形目 Falconiformes 24 64 37.50 伯劳科 Laniidae 4 12 33.33
夜鹰目 Caprimulgiformes 1 8 12.50 鹡鸰科 Motacillidae 8 20 40.00
鸻形目 Charadriiformes 5 129 3.88 鹎科 Pycnonotidae 7 22 31.82
鹳形目 Ciconiiformes 5 36 13.89 鹀科 Emberizidae 12 31 38.71
沙鸡目 Pteroclidiformes 1 3 33.33 莺科 Sylviidae 17 104 16.35
鸽形目 Columbiformes 6 31 19.35 ?科 Sittidae 3 11 27.27
鹤形目 Gruiformes 4 34 11.76 卷尾科 Dicruridae 2 7 28.57
鹃形目 Cuculiformes 2 20 10.00 阔嘴鸟科 Eurylaimidae 1 2 50.00
戴胜目 Upupiformes 1 1 100.00 椋鸟科 Sturnidae 2 21 9.52
佛法僧目 Coraciiformes 2 21 9.52 燕科 Hirundinidae 1 12 8.33
咬鹃目 Trogoniformes 1 3 33.33 百灵科 Alaudidae 2 14 14.29
雨燕目 Apodiformes 1 11 9.09 河乌科 Cinclidae 1 2 50.00
雀形目 Passeriformes* 268 764 35.08 山椒鸟科 Campephagidae 3 10 30.00
鸦科 Corvidae 17 29 58.62 鹪鹩科 Troglodytidae 1 1 100.00
鸦雀科 Paradoxornithidae 6 20 30.00 绣眼鸟科 Zosteropidae 1 4 25.00
画眉科 Timaliidae 50 126 39.68 黄鹂科 Oriolidea 1 6 16.67
鹟科 Muscicapidae 16 37 43.24 太平鸟科 Bombycillidae 1 2 50.00
王鹟科 Monarchinae 1 3 33.33 旋壁雀科 Tichidromidae 1 1 100.00
鸫科 Turdidae 58 94 61.70 太阳鸟科 Nectariniidae 2 6 33.33
岩鹨科 Prunellidea 5 9 55.56 合计 Total 393 1,371 28.78
山雀科 Paridae 11 22 50.00

表2

我国各省区红外相机研究/监测点数量与记录到的鸟类物种数"

省(自治区、直辖市)
Province
研究/监测点数量
No. of sites*
文献数量
No. of reference**
有鸟类信息的文献数
No. of reference with
bird records
记录鸟种数
No. of recorded bird
species
区域性新记录种次
No. of new regional species records
北京 Beijing 3 5 3 54 10
天津 Tianjin 1 1 1 14 0
上海 Shanghai 0 0 0 0 0
重庆 Chongqing 0 0 0 0 0
山西 Shanxi 5 2 1 22 0
河北 Hebei 1 1 1 6 0
辽宁 Liaoning 1 1 0 0 0
吉林 Jilin 3 14 3 11 0
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 2 3 1 5 0
江苏 Jiangsu 2 2 2 2 2
浙江 Zhejiang 7 13 8 66 1
安徽 Anhui 2 3 3 29 0
福建 Fujian 0 0 0 0 0
江西 Jiangxi 7 11 6 29 6
山东 Shandong 0 0 0 0 0
河南 Henan 3 4 3 33 16
湖北 Hubei 4 6 5 54 4
湖南 Hunan 3 6 4 36 13
广东 Guangdong 4 6 3 31 0
海南 Hainan 4 5 3 20 0
四川 Sichuan 16 34 22 160 19
贵州 Guizhou 3 6 3 18 7
云南 Yunnan 14 18 12 91 3
陕西 Shaanxi 6 16 5 20 1
甘肃 Gansu 5 11 5 18 0
青海 Qinghai 6 6 1 7 0
内蒙古 Neimenggu 3 5 3 13 1
广西 Guangxi 6 10 6 59 20
西藏 Xizang 5 7 3 44 0
宁夏 Ningxia 1 1 1 12 0
新疆 Xinjiang 10 19 7 53 1
香港 Hong Kong 1 7 1 6 0
澳门 Macau 1 1 1 1 0
台湾 Taiwan 8 12 3 9 0
合计 Total 137 236 120 393 104

图1

我国各省区已报道红外相机研究/监测点位置与记录到的鸟类物种数"

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