生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1123-1130.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017079

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

海南岛周边海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构及其分布

周红英1,2, 姚雪梅1,2,*(), 黎李3, 耿涛年1,2, 张颖1,2   

  1. 1 南海海洋资源利用国家重点实验室(海南大学), 海口 570228
    2 海南大学海洋学院, 海口 570228
    3 海口市环境监察局, 海口 570125;
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-15 接受日期:2017-09-13 出版日期:2017-10-20 发布日期:2018-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 姚雪梅
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31460555)和“中西部高校提升综合实力”资助项目

Scleractinian coral community structure and distribution in the coastal waters surrounding Hainan Island

Hongying Zhou1,2, Xuemei Yao1,2,*(), Li Li3, Taonian Geng1,2, Ying Zhang1,2   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    2 College of Ocean, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    3 Department of Ecology and Environment Protection of Haikou, Haikou 570125
  • Received:2017-03-15 Accepted:2017-09-13 Online:2017-10-20 Published:2018-05-05
  • Contact: Yao Xuemei

摘要:

基于形态学分类鉴定, 并辅以分子标记, 我们于2014-2015年调查分析了海南岛文昌云龙湾、万宁大洲岛、儋州磷枪石岛、昌江沙鱼塘村、三亚鹿回头海域造礁石珊瑚的种类组成和分布。结果表明, 海南造礁石珊瑚的分布较为广泛, 共鉴定出10科17属55种, 其中鹿角珊瑚科、滨珊瑚科和蜂巢珊瑚科为优势科。各海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构不同: 南部三亚鹿回头海域以分枝状鹿角珊瑚为主, 东部文昌云龙湾和万宁大洲岛海域分别以叶片状和分枝状蔷薇珊瑚为主, 而西部儋州磷枪石岛和昌江沙鱼塘村则分别以团块状滨珊瑚和蜂巢珊瑚为主。不同的地理环境使海南岛周边海域珊瑚礁群落呈现出不同的演替型, 具有明显的地域性分布特点。5个不同海域造礁石珊瑚的覆盖率和多样性指数依次为: 三亚鹿回头 > 文昌云龙湾 > 昌江沙鱼塘村 > 万宁大洲岛 > 儋州磷枪石岛, 覆盖率和多样性指数具有明显的正相关性。与2005-2010年的调查结果相比, 文昌云龙湾和万宁大洲岛保护区造礁石珊瑚的覆盖率和多样性指数有所上升, 昌江沙鱼塘村和三亚鹿回头相对稳定, 儋州磷枪石岛则下降比较明显。死亡率较高的是昌江沙鱼塘村邻近海域, 且多为最近半年内死亡。人类活动(保护性或破坏性)极大地影响着造礁石珊瑚的多样性、覆盖率和死亡率。

关键词: 海南, 造礁石珊瑚, 群落结构, 分布

Abstract

Based on the classical morphological and molecular taxonomy, 55 scleractinian coral species, belonging to 17 genera and 10 families, were recorded in five different coastal areas (Yunlong Bay, Wenchang; Dazhou Island, Wanning; Linqiangshi Island, Danzhou; Shayutang Village, Changjiang; Luhuitou, Sanya) of Hainan between 2014 and 2015. The dominant families included Acroporidae, Poritadae and Faviidae. The community structures of coral reefs in the five coastal areas were different. In Sanya, located in the south of Hainan, branching Acropora corals dominated the coral communities. In Wenchang and Wanning, on the eastern coast of Hainan, the laminar and branching Montipora corals were the dominant groups. In contrast, the mass corals Poritadae and Faviidae dominated the western coast in Danzhou and Changjiang. Analyses of community structure indicated that different geographic environments regulated successional differences. Coverage rates and diversity index values had a positive correlation and were as follows: Sanya > Wenchang > Changjiang > Wanning > Danzhou. Compared with the data obtained between 2005 and 2010, the coverage rates and diversity index values increased in Wenchang and Wanning and were relatively stable in Sanya and Changjiang, but showed an obvious decrease in Danzhou. However, the death rate of scleractinian corals was the highest in Changjiang, and most of the corals died within the last six months of 2015. In our opinion, human activities (including both protective and destructive activities) greatly affected coverage rates, death rates and diversity of the coral reefs.

Key words: Hainan, scleractinian coral, community structure, distribution