生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 389-398.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015243

所属专题: 中国西南干旱河谷的植物多样性

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

怒江河谷入侵植物与乡土植物丰富度的分布格局与影响因子

许玥1, 李鹏1, 刘晔2, 张婉君3, 秦思雨4, 沈泽昊1, *()   

  1. 1 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871。
    2 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 广东深圳 518055。
    3 北京国道通公路设计研究院股份有限公司, 北京 100053。
    4 Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Arlington, VA 22202
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-14 接受日期:2015-09-14 出版日期:2016-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊 E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41371190)和交通运输部西部计划项目(2008 318 799 17)

Spatial patterns and determinants of species richness of alien and native plants in the Nujiang River valley

Yue Xu1, Peng Li1, Ye Liu2, Wanjun Zhang3, Siyu Qin4, Zehao Shen1, *()   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871.
    2 School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055
    3 Beijing Guodaotong Highway Design & Research Institute CO., LTD, Beijing 100053.
    4 Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Arlington, VA 22202
  • Received:2015-09-14 Accepted:2015-09-14 Online:2016-04-20
  • Contact: Shen Zehao E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn

外来物种入侵严重威胁着乡土植物多样性并削弱了生态系统服务功能。本文基于滇西北怒江河谷植被调查的样方数据, 从群落水平研究了乡土和入侵植物多样性的空间分布格局, 以及地形、气候、人类干扰等因子对两种格局的影响。本研究共记录到外来入侵植物26种, 隶属于13科21属; 乡土植物1,145种, 分属于158科628属。沿着怒江河谷, 入侵植物物种丰富度随纬度与海拔的增加而减少; 乡土物种丰富度则随纬度增加而增加, 并在海拔梯度上呈单峰格局。运用广义线性模型分析公路边缘效应(反映生境干扰)、气候、地形和土壤等环境因素对物种丰富度分布格局的影响。等级方差分离的结果显示, 公路两侧的生境干扰对入侵种和乡土种的丰富度格局均具有首要影响。在自然环境因子中, 降水量是入侵植物丰富度的主要限制因子, 而乡土物种丰富度则主要受到地形因子尤其是坡向的影响。结构方程模型的分析结果也表明, 乡土植物和入侵植物丰富度之间的负相关关系反映了二者对环境响应的差异。本文结果支持物种入侵的资源可利用性限制假说, 并强调了人类活动对生物多样性的负面影响; 乡土植物或已较好地适应了干旱河谷气候, 但并没有显示出对外来物种入侵的抵抗作用。

关键词: 入侵物种, 乡土物种, 空间格局, 气候, 人类活动

Biological invasion has attracted widespread attention because invasive species threaten native biodiversity and weaken ecosystem services. Based on field investigation of vegetation in Nujiang River valley, Northwest Yunnan, we analyzed the spatial patterns of native and invasive species richness, and the effects of topography, climate, and roadside habitat disturbance on the invasive versus native plant species richness. We recorded 26 exotic invasive plant species that belong to 13 families and 21 genera, and 1,145 native plant species, belonging to 158 families and 628 genera. Along the Nujiang River valley, species richness of invasive plants decreased with increasing latitude and altitude, while species richness of native plants increased with increasing latitude, and showed a hump-shaped pattern with elevation. A generalized linear model was used to estimate the roles of roadside disturbance, climate, topography and soil nutrients on the distribution of both native and invasive species richness. Results of hierarchical variation partitioning revealed that roadside habitat disturbance had primary impact on the distribution of two groups of species. Precipitation was the climatic determinant of invasive species diversity, and small-scale topographic factors, especially aspect, mainly affected native species diversity. It is likely that native species became drought-resistant in the evolutionary process while invasive species failed to adapt themselves to the local arid environments due to the short colonization time. This research supports the hypothesis that resource availability is the main factor limiting plant invasion, and highlights the negative effects of human activity on biodiversity. In addition, results of structural equation modelling revealed that native communities aren’t resistant to plant invasion. The negative relationship between invasive and native species richness reflects the different responses of the two group species to environmental factors.

Key words: invasive species, native species, spatial patterns, climate, human activity

图1

怒江地区公路沿线植物调查样方分布图"

图2

怒江河谷入侵(A)与乡土植物(B)丰富度随纬度和海拔的分布"

图3

基于等级方差分离的怒江河谷入侵(a)和乡土植物(b)物种丰富度格局的环境因子独立和联合解释能力。*表示在0.05水平显著。"

图4

入侵与乡土植物物种丰富度的关系"

表1

环境因子的主成分分析结果。表中的值为各因子在主成分中的载荷、各主成分的特征值及解释百分比。粗体为4个主成分中载荷较大的变量。"

环境因子 Environmental factors 第一主成分 PCA1 第二主成分 PCA2 第三主成分 PCA3 第四主成分 PCA4
公路等级 Road grade 0.108 -0.028 -0.056 0.021
与公路距离 Distance to roads -0.029 0.129 -0.153 -0.487
样方内是否存在乔木
Presence or absence of trees
0.029 -0.006 -0.046 -0.113
坡形 Shape -0.019 0.011 -0.007 0.024
坡位 Position 0.099 -0.151 0.086 -0.461
坡度 Slope 0.039 -0.062 0.050 -0.581
裸地比例 Bare land percentage -0.148 -0.087 0.077 0.420
年均温 Mean annual temperature -0.351 -0.082 -0.033 -0.048
最冷季均温 Mean temperature of coldest quarter -0.349 -0.112 -0.032 -0.042
最湿季均温 Mean temperature of wettest quarter -0.353 -0.022 -0.029 -0.054
年潜在蒸散 Potential evapotranspiration -0.351 -0.082 -0.032 -0.048
年降水 Mean annual precipitation -0.179 0.507 -0.162 0.002
最干季降水 Precipitation of driest quarter -0.185 0.415 0.376 -0.008
最湿季降水 Precipitation of wettest quarter -0.116 0.323 -0.611 0.019
年实际蒸散 Actural evapotranspiration -0.351 0.059 -0.049 -0.045
水分亏缺 Water deficit 0.311 0.275 0.003 0.047
温度季节性 Temperature seasonality 0.103 0.507 0.038 -0.052
降水季节性 Precipitation seasonality 0.164 -0.211 -0.637 0.055
特征值 Eigenvalue 8.288 2.662 1.578 1.203
解释百分比 Percentage explained (%) 48.600 15.600 9.300 7.100

图5

环境因子主成分(PCA1, PCA2, PCA3, PCA4)和乡土种丰富度(nat_ric)对入侵种丰富度(inv_ric)影响的结构方程模型。箭头方向表示因果关系, 数字表示路径相关系数, 方框旁的数字表示模型对变量变异的解释系数, 星号表示相关的显著性水平: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001。"

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