生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 479-492.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015021

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武夷山中亚热带常绿阔叶林样地的群落特征

丁晖1, , A;*, 方炎明2, , A;*, 杨青3, 陈晓3, 袁发银2, 徐辉3, 何立恒4, 严靖2, 陈婷婷1, 5, 余朝健2, 徐海根1, , A;, A;*()   

  1. 1 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所自然保护与生物多样性研究中心/国家环境保护生物安全重点实验室, 南京 210042
    2南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心/生物与环境学院, 南京 210037
    3福建省武夷山生物研究所, 福建武夷山 3543004 (南京林业大学土木工程学院, 南京 210037
    5 南京信息工程大学应用气象学院, 南京 210044
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-23 接受日期:2015-05-28 出版日期:2015-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 丁晖,方炎明,徐海根 E-mail:xhg@nies.org
  • 基金项目:
    国家科技支撑计划课题(2012BAC01B01)、环保公益性行业科研专项(201309039)、中央级科学事业单位修缮购置专项“全国生物多样性野外监测示范基地修缮项目一期”、环境保护部“生物多样性保护专项”、江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD)、2014年福建省省属公益类科研院所基本科研专项(2014R1010-1)

Community characteristics of a mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot in the Wuyi Mountains, Fujian Province, southeastern China

Hui Ding1, *, Yanming Fang2, *, Qing Yang3, Xiao Chen3, Fayin Yuan2, Hui Xu3, Liheng He4, Jing Yan2, Tingting Chen1, 5, Chaojian Yu5, Haigen Xu1, **()   

  1. 1 Research Center for Nature Conservation and Biodiversity/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory on Biosafety, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 Southern Modern Forestry Collaborative Innovation Center/College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    3 Wuyishan Biological Institute of Fujian Province, Wuyishan, Fujian 354300
    4 School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    5 College of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044
  • Received:2015-01-23 Accepted:2015-05-28 Online:2015-07-20
  • Contact: Ding Hui,Fang Yanming,Xu Haigen E-mail:xhg@nies.org

武夷山保存了典型的中亚热带原生性森林生态系统。由于以往研究的空间和时间尺度较小, 方法规范性不强, 该地区尚缺少大型的、规范的综合性观测和研究平台。本文依托环境保护部南京环境科学研究所等单位按照CTFS调查技术规范建立的武夷山中亚热带常绿阔叶林9.6 ha动态监测样地开展植物群落调查, 从物种组成、区系特征、径级结构和空间分布格局等方面分析了其群落特征。结果表明: 样地内有维管植物68科135属232种, 其中乔木层内胸径≥ 1 cm的植物有44科86属171种。热带性质的科和属分别占总科数和总属数的68.58%和58.83%, 热带特征明显。珍稀濒危物种较多, 有4种国家II级重点保护野生植物、2种《中国生物多样性红色名录——高等植物卷》中的“近危”物种、1种《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES)附录II物种以及72种中国特有物种, 具有较高的保护和研究价值。稀有种29种, 占总树种数的16.96%。重要值最大的科是壳斗科和山茶科, 二者的重要值之和大于40%。米槠(Castanopsis carlesii)、毛锥(C. fordii)、甜槠(C. eyrei)和少叶黄杞(Engelhardtia fenzlii)的重要值较大, 但没有明显的优势种。小径木较多, 所有个体的平均胸径为5.10 cm, 整体径级分布呈倒J形。乔木层可分为两个亚层, 米槠、毛锥、甜槠等在第I亚层中占优势。米槠和毛锥呈均匀分布, 甜槠、少叶黄杞、赤楠(Syzygium buxifolium)和木荷(Schima superba)呈聚集分布。

关键词: 森林动态监测样地, 中亚热带常绿阔叶林, 物种组成, 群落结构, 武夷山

Wuyi Mountains preserve the primary forest ecosystem characteristic of the mid-subtropics. We established a large-scale plots in this area according to standard international protocols (Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS). Community characteristics such as flora composition, floristic characteristics, DBH structure and spatial distribution patterns in a 9.6 ha plot were analyzed. The results showed that the vascular plants in the plot belonged to 68 families, 135 genera, 232 species. Among these plants, trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm) belonged to 44 families, 86 genera, 171 species. For plants with tropical elements, family and genera accounted for 68.58% and 58.83% of total, respectively, which indicates a tropical feature of the ecosystem. There were many rare and endangered species, including four State Priority Protected Wild Plant Species at Level II, two threatened species (VU) of Red List of China’s Biodiversity, one species of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES ) (Appendix II) and 72 endemic species to China. Rare species (N = 29, less than 1 individuals/ha) accounted for 16.96%. Fagaceae and Theaceae, with a total importance values of greater than 40%, were most dominant. Castanopsis carlesii, C. fordii, C. eyrei and Engelhardtia fenzlii had the largest importance values but no species significantly dominated the community. Small sized trees dominated the plot, with a mean DBH of 5.10 cm and the DBH-class distribution presented an inverse “J” shape. The emergent layer was divided into two sub-layers with C. carlesii, C. fordii, C. eyrei dominating the first sub-layer. Castanopsis carlesii and C. fordii had an even distribution, at the same time, C. eyrei, E. fenzlii, Syzygium buxifolium and Schima superba had a clustered distribution.

Key words: forest dynamics plot, mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, species composition, community structure, Wuyi Mountains

图1

武夷山森林动态监测样地地形图"

表1

武夷山森林动态监测样地乔木植物的科属分布类型"

分布区类型 Area types 科数
No. of
families
科的百分比 Percentage of families (%) 属数
No. of
genera
属的百分比
Percentage of genera (%)
1. 广布 Cosmopolitan 9 - 1 -
2. 泛热带 Pantropic 14 40.00 12 14.12
3. 东亚(热带、亚热带)及热带南美间断 Tropical and Subtropical East Asia, (South)Tropical America disjuncted 6 17.14 9 10.59
4. 旧世界热带 Old World Tropic 1 2.86 9 10.59
5. 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia Oceania 1 2.86 4 4.71
6. 热带亚洲至热带非洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 1 2.86 2 2.35
7. 热带亚洲 Tropical Asia 1 2.86 14 16.47
热带小计 Subtotal of Tropical (2-7) 24 68.58 50 58.83
8. 北温带 North Temperate 9 25.71 10 11.76
9. 东亚及北美间断 East Asia and North America disjuncted 2 5.71 11 12.94
10. 旧世界温带 Old World Temperate 0 0.00 1 1.18
14. 东亚 East Asia 0 0.00 9 10.59
温带小计 Subtotal of Temperate (8-14) 11 31.42 31 36.47
15. 中国特有 Endemic to China 0 0.00 4 4.71
合计 Total 44 100.00 86 100.00

图2

武夷山森林动态监测样地的种-面积曲线。×: 实测值; ·: 模拟值。"

图3

武夷山森林动态监测样地物种相对密度序列"

表2

武夷山森林动态监测样地重要值排名前10位的科"

科名 Family 属数 No. of genera 物种数 No. of species 个体数 No. of individuals 科重要值 IV of families (%)
壳斗科 Fagaceae 3 14 10,922 27.40
山茶科 Theaceae 7 18 11,211 13.56
杜英科 Elaeocarpaceae 2 5 2,554 6.23
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 2 10 5,343 5.76
樟科 Lauraceae 7 17 4,284 5.40
冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 1 14 3,768 5.01
木兰科 Magnoliaceae 3 5 3,848 4.51
胡桃科 Juglandaceae 1 1 2,489 4.43
桃金娘科 Myrtaceae 1 1 3,671 3.69
山矾科 Symplocaceae 1 9 2,687 3.38

表3

武夷山森林动态监测样地重要值排位名前10位的物种及其胸高断面积"

物种 Species 重要值
IV (%)
胸高断面积
Basal area (m2)
米槠 Castanopsis carlesii 7.21 50.19
毛锥 Castanopsis fordii 5.28 25.86
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 4.58 30.97
少叶黄杞 Engelhardtia fenzlii 4.43 21.57
赤楠 Syzygium buxifolium 3.69 4.97
木荷 Schima superba 3.20 15.91
弯蒴杜鹃 Rhododendron henryi 2.96 4.58
矩叶鼠刺 Itea oblonga 2.90 2.58
格药柃 Eurya muricata 2.79 2.44
罗浮锥 Castanopsis faberi 2.79 19.04

图4

武夷山森林动态监测样地不同径级(1-51cm)个体的分布"

图5

武夷山森林动态监测样地重要值排名前9位的物种径级分布"

表4

武夷山森林动态监测样地不同亚层中个体数排名前10位的物种"

第I亚层 The first sub-layer 第II亚层 The second sub-layer
物种 Species 个体数 No. of individuals 物种 Species 个体数 No. of individuals
米槠 Castanopsis carlesii 776 毛锥 Castanopsis fordii 1,303
毛锥 Castanopsis fordii 536 矩叶鼠刺 Itea oblonga 1,246
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 508 少叶黄杞 Engelhardtia fenzlii 1,188
日本杜英 Elaeocarpus japonicus 437 赤楠 Syzygium buxifolium 1,128
少叶黄杞 Engelhardtia fenzlii 417 弯蒴杜鹃 Rhododendron henryi 1,124
木荷 Schima superba 378 福建含笑 Michelia fujianensis 776
罗浮锥 Castanopsis faberi 353 格药柃 Eurya muricata 691
赤杨叶 Alniphyllum fortunei 349 港柯 Lithocarpus harlandii 677
港柯 Lithocarpus harlandii 274 细柄蕈树 Altingia gracilipes 642
中华杜英 Elaeocarpus chinensis 265 木荷 Schima superba 626

图6

武夷山森林动态监测样地物种的高度分布"

图7

武夷山森林动态监测样地重要值排名前10位的物种空间分布"

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