生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 202-209.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014247

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尚勇保护区亚洲象种群数量评估和遗传多样性分析

何长欢1, 周玉1, 王利繁2, *(), 张立1, *()   

  1. 1 北京师范大学生命科学学院, 教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室, 北京 100875
    2 西双版纳国家级自然保护区尚勇管理所, 云南勐腊 666300
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-27 接受日期:2015-02-11 出版日期:2015-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 王利繁,张立 E-mail:wlf766@163.com;asterzhang@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31172108)、国家985重点建设项目北京师范大学生物多样性科学与濒危物种保育科技创新平台及美国内政部鱼和野生动物管理局亚洲象保护基金(98210-8-G565)

Estimating population size and genetic diversity of Asian elephant in the Shangyong Nature Reserve

Changhuan He1, Yu Zhou1, Lifan Wang2, *(), Li Zhang1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University; Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Ecological Engineering, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875
    2 Shangyong Sub-reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, Mengla, Yunnan 666300
  • Received:2014-11-27 Accepted:2015-02-11 Online:2015-03-20
  • Contact: Wang Lifan,Zhang Li E-mail:wlf766@163.com;asterzhang@bnu.edu.cn

亚洲象(Elephas maximus)是我国国家一级保护动物, 准确地评估其种群大小和遗传多样性对该物种的保护具有十分重要的意义。本文采用非损伤性取样方法, 并结合野外观察数据对尚勇保护区当前亚洲象种群数量进行了评估, 同时对该种群的遗传多样性进行了分析。采用7对微卫星引物对185份粪便样品进行扩增, 通过基因分型, 得到59个独特的基因型。文章采用两种方法评估种群数量, 即聚集曲线法和分子标记重捕法, 估计尚勇保护区的亚洲象种群数量为76 ± 8头(95%置信区间内为67-99头)。遗传多样性方面, 平均等位基因数为3.86, 平均观察杂合度为0.52, 平均期望杂合度为0.42, 平均多态信息含量为0.34, 表明尚勇保护区亚洲象种群遗传多样性水平为中等偏低, 与勐养种群遗传多样性水平相似。

关键词: Elephas maximus, 微卫星, 聚集曲线法, 分子标记重捕法, 种群数量, 遗传多样性

Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is a first class protected species in China. Estimation of the population size and genetic variability is crucial to the management and conservation of this species. A genetic survey was conducted using multi locus genotyping of noninvasively collected fecal samples of the Asian elephant population in the Shangyong Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province of China. Amplification of 185 fecal DNA samples by 7 microsatellite primers resulted in a total of 59 unique genotypes. The average number of alleles was 3.86, the average observed and expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC), was 0.52, 0.42 and 0.34, respectively. Accumulation curve method and capture mark re-capture were used to evaluate the population size. Results indicated that the population size in Shangyong Nature Reserve was 76 ± 8 (from 67 to 99 individuals, 95% confidence interval). Overall, a moderate level of genetic variability was observed in the Shangyong population, which was similar to a population in the Mengyang region.

Key words: Asian elephant, microsatellite, accumulation curve method, capture mark re-capture method, population size, genetic diversity

表1

59个独立基因型在3个捕获时期内的捕获历史"

编号
Number
捕获历史
Capture history
编号
Number
捕获历史
Capture history
编号
Number
捕获历史
Capture history
编号
Number
捕获历史
Capture history
编号
Number
捕获历史
Capture history
1 110 13 010 25 010 37 010 49 001
2 100 14 010 26 010 38 010 50 110
3 100 15 010 27 010 39 111 51 100
4 110 16 010 28 010 40 010 52 100
5 100 17 011 29 010 41 010 53 100
6 110 18 010 30 010 42 011 54 010
7 111 19 111 31 010 43 001 55 010
8 111 20 010 32 010 44 010 56 010
9 011 21 010 33 110 45 010 57 010
10 110 22 110 34 010 46 111 58 010
11 010 23 010 35 010 47 001 59 001
12 010 24 001 36 110 48 001

表2

尚勇保护区亚洲象种群7个位点的识别概率(Pid)"

位点Locus 矫正随机识别概率Pid/biased 无偏随机识别概率Pid/unbiased 同胞识别概率Pid-sib
M2 6.656e-01 6.656e-01 8.221e-01
P14 3.762e-01 3.762e-01 5.952e-01
P15 7.712e-01 7.624e-01 8.796e-01
P19 2.529e-01 2.437e-01 5.214e-01
P21 3.294e-01 3.160e-01 5.932e-01
P23 1.532e-01 1.421e-01 4.509e-01
P24 4.810e-01 4.697e-01 6.938e-01
Total 1.185e-03 9.523e-04 4.164e-02

表3

利用聚集曲线法和分子标记重捕法估计尚勇保护区亚洲象的种群数量"

方法
Method
模型
Model
种群数量
Population
size
95%置信区间
95% CI
聚集曲线法 Chessel 方程 67 ± 4 46-66
Accumulation curve Eggert 方程 83 ± 15 53-103
Kohn 方程 132 ± 30 73-175
分子标记重捕法 Mark M(t) 76 ± 8 67-99
Capture mark re-capture Capwire TIRM 110 81-138

表4

尚勇保护区亚洲象种群7个位点的遗传信息"

位点
Locus
基因型数量
Genotype
number
等位基因数目
Allele number
片段长度
Size range
(bp)
期望杂合度
Expected
heterozygosity (He)
观察杂合度
Observed heterozygosity (Ho)
多态信息含量
Polymorphism information content (PIC)
有效等位基因数目
Effective number
of alleles (Ne)
M2 59 4 131-147 0.19 0.20 0.18 1.23
P14 59 2 145-149 0.50 0.93 0.37 1.99
P15 59 2 123-125 0.13 0.07 0.12 1.15
P19 59 5 145-155 0.58 0.78 0.51 2.41
P21 59 7 210-226 0.48 0.64 0.30 1.72
P23 59 5 221-229 0.67 0.76 0.63 3.08
P24 59 2 162-164 0.35 0.22 0.29 1.55
平均 Mean 59 3.86 / 0.42 0.52 0.34 1.88

附表1

尚勇保护区与勐养保护区亚洲象遗传多样性比较"

位点
Locus
尚勇 Shangyong 勐养 Mengyang*
期望杂合度Expected
heterozygosity
(He)
观察杂合度Observed heterozygosity
(Ho)
多态信息含量Polymorphism information content
(PIC)
期望杂合度Expected
heterozygosity
(He)
观察杂合度Observed heterozygosity
(Ho)
多态信息含量Polymorphism information content
(PIC)
M2 EMX-1 0.19 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.16
P14 LafMS09 0.50 0.93 0.37 0.49 0.85 0.37
P15 LafMS10 0.13 0.07 0.12 0.12 0.02 0.12
P19 FH60 0.58 0.78 0.51 0.54 0.84 0.46
P21 FH94 0.48 0.64 0.30 0.40 0.42 0.37
P23 LA2 0.67 0.76 0.63 0.31 0.25 0.30
P24 LA3 0.35 0.22 0.29 0.29 0.20 0.25
Mean 0.42 0.52 0.34 0.32 0.36 0.28
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