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厦门同安湾定置网捕获鱼类的多样性及营养级特征

1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
• 收稿日期:2014-03-12 接受日期:2014-09-15 出版日期:2014-09-20 发布日期:2014-10-09
• 通讯作者: 杜建国
• 基金资助:
国家自然科学基金(31101902)、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金(海三科2011006)、福建省自然科学基金(2012J05074)、海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201305030-4)

Biodiversity and trophic level characteristics of fishes captured by set nets in Tong’an Bay, Xiamen

Jianji Liao, Xinqing Zheng, Jianguo Du*, Bin Chen, Zhiyuan Ma, Wenjia Hu

1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
• Received:2014-03-12 Accepted:2014-09-15 Online:2014-09-20 Published:2014-10-09

Abstract

The diversity and trophic levels of fish species in Tong’an Bay were described based on monthly set net fishing surveys from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 112 species belonging to 88 genera, 53 families and 15 orders were recorded. According to their habitat strata, the fishes were grouped into 3 types, among them 15 species were pelagic, 18 near demersal, and 79 demersal. According to adaptation to temperature, the fishes were divided into 2 types, 84 species were warm water and the other 28 were warm-temperate species. In terms of food habits, there were 4 types, of which 8 species were omnivores, 71 lower carnivorous, 30 middle carnivorous and 3 higher carnivorous. Tachysurus sinensis was the dominant species in summer, autumn and winter, while Polydactylus sextarius, Butis koilomatodon and Tridentiger barbatus were the dominant species in spring and winter. The highest body mass and individual Shannon-Wiener diversity index were 3.26 and 3.29 in November, and the lowest values were 1.78 and 1.77 in February, respectively. The fish community showed distinct seasonal changes, with the lowest monthly change rate of fishes of 40.1% in June, and the highest was 68.6% in March. The mean trophic level also showed significant changes, the minimum was 3.02 in March, the maximum was 3.92 in January, and the average mean trophic level was 3.52. Comparing our data set with previous data from 2003-2004, we found that the species number, species composition and the dominant species in Tong’an Bay all changed significantly. Overfishing, habitat loss and environmental pollution were identified as main factors causing the decline in fish diversity in Tong’an Bay.