生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 758-763.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14182

所属专题: 野生动物的红外相机监测

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狗獾夜间活动节律是受人类活动影响而形成的吗?基于青海湖地区的研究实例

李峰1,2, 蒋志刚1,,A;*()   

  1. 1 .中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2 .江苏大学附属第四人民医院, 江苏镇江 212001
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-29 接受日期:2014-11-30 出版日期:2014-11-20 发布日期:2014-12-11
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31372175)

Is nocturnal rhythm of Asian badger (Meles leucurus) caused by human activity? A case study in the eastern area of Qinghai Lake

Feng Li1,2, Zhigang Jiang1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. The 4th Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001
  • Received:2013-08-29 Accepted:2014-11-30 Online:2014-11-20 Published:2014-12-11

摘要:

青海湖地区是目前已知的狗獾分布海拔最高点。为了解狗獾在青藏高原严酷生态环境下的生活史特点, 并验证是否人类干扰造成了狗獾夜行性的假说, 我们利用红外相机技术, 结合无线电遥测和野外调查研究了青海湖湖东地区亚洲狗獾(Meles leucurus)的种群密度、洞穴口的行为及活动节律。结果表明: (1)研究地区狗獾的平均种群密度为1.2 ± 0.6只/km2, 其分布受食物丰富度的影响; (2)狗獾基本在夜间活动, 出洞时间集中在20:00-23:00之间, 而回洞时间则集中在清晨4:00-7:00之间, 23:00-4:00之间是狗獾的活动高峰; (3)狗獾离洞前行为主要是警戒行为, 回洞穴时的行为主要是嬉戏行为, 其他行为较少见, 表达具有特定的时间性; (4)人类活动对于狗獾活动没有显著性影响(P < 0.05)。

关键词: 行为, 青藏高原, 警戒行为, 活动节律, Meles leucurus

Abstract:

The Qinghai Lake area is the known highest place with Asian badger (Meles leucurus) distribution in the world. In order to test the hypothesis that human interference caused the nocturnal activity rhythm of badgers, we used infrared cameras in complementary of telemetry of radio collared two badgers to record activity rhythm of badgers at the entrances of their setts in the eastern shore of Qinghai Lake. We also estimated the population density and recorded the behaviors expressed by the badgers with infrared cameras and other conventional field investigations. The results showed: (1) through infrared camera records and sett density estimation, the average badger densities in this area were 1.2 ± 0.6 badgers/km2 and being influenced by food abundance. (2) the most common behavior expressed by badgers at sett entrances was vigilance behavior when badger emerged from the setts, followed by the play behavior when badgers returned to setts. (3) badgers mainly emerged from the setts between 20:00-23:00 and returned to the sett between 4:00-7:00 in the following morning. Their activity peak focused between 23:00-4:00. Human activity had no influence on the nocturnal activity rhythm of badgers.

Key words: infrared camera, Tibetan Plateau, vigilance, activity rhythm, badger