生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 549-563.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14124

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气候变化对野生植物的影响及保护对策

黎磊1, 陈家宽1,2,*()   

  1. 1 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所, 南昌 330031
    2 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200433
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-12 接受日期:2014-08-25 出版日期:2014-09-20 发布日期:2014-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 陈家宽

Influence of climate change on wild plants and the conservation strategies

Lei Li1, Jiakuan Chen1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Center for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    2 Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
  • Received:2014-06-12 Accepted:2014-08-25 Online:2014-09-20 Published:2014-10-09
  • Contact: Chen Jiakuan

摘要:

以温室气体浓度持续上升、全球气候变暖为主要特征的全球气候变化对野生植物及生物多样性造成的潜在影响, 已经引起了国际学者的高度关注。本文总结了全球气候变化的现状与未来趋势, 概述了中国野生植物的保护及管理现状, 从不同侧面综述了国内外关于全球气候变暖对野生植物影响的研究进展和动态, 包括气候带北移、两极冰山退缩、高海拔山地变暖、海平面上升、早春温度提前升高、荒漠草原土壤增温、旱涝急转弯等对野生植物造成的影响以及气候变暖对种间关系和敏感植物类群的影响, 并从气候变化背景下全球生态系统敏感度、植物多样性、物种迁移与气候槽(sink areas)、物种适应与灭绝以及物候节律5个方面分析了未来全球变暖影响野生植物的总体趋势。在以后的野生植物保护与管理中, 应确定全球气候变化的植物多样性敏感区, 重点关注对气候变化敏感的植物类群以及气候要素改变植物-动物互作关系中的野生植物, 自然保护区的建设要重点考虑全球气候变化的影响, 通过在全球范围内对野生植物分布和种群变化进行长期、系统的追踪监测, 建立有效的数据库, 发展野生植物迁地保护的保育技术及信息网络, 发展有关野生植物对全球气候变化响应的量化指标及相应的模型。最后提出应将全球气候变化下野生植物保护与管理列入相关基金会的研究重点。

关键词: 全球变暖, 冰川退缩, 海平面上升, 植物多样性, 物种迁移, 物候, 迁地保护

Abstract:

Recently, the influence of climate change on wild plants has attracted keen attention from international scholars. In an effort to elucidate the importance of considering climate change effects in the conservation and management of wild plants, we first summarized the status of global climate change in the world and its trends in next 100 years, as well as the conservation status of plants in China in recent years. Specifically, we reviewed research on the potential influences of global warming on wild plants from several aspects, including northward migration of plants with shifting climate zones, glacial recession in polar regions, warming in high altitude mountains, sea level rise, advance of temperature rise in early spring, desert steppe soil temperature increase, drought-flood cycle alterations, as well as the response of interspecies relationships and sensitive plant taxa to global warming. Then, we analyzed the general trends of future global warming effects on wild plants by reviewing global ecosystem sensitivity, plant diversity, plant migration and climate sink areas, species adaptation and extinction, as well as plant phenology in the context of global warming. Finally, we suggest that key areas of plant diversity should be delineated and protected, with a focus on climate-sensitive taxa and plants that are involved with plant-animal interactions that will be affected by climate factors. The impacts of global climate change should be taken into account in the further development of nature reserves. We also recommend the establishment of a database for the long-term and systematic monitoring of wild plant distribution and population dynamics on a global scale. Technologies for ex-situ conservation of wild plants and information networks should be developed. Quantitative indices and corresponding models relating the response of wild plants to global climate change should be also developed. Finally, we suggest that the conservation and management of wild plants in response to global climate change should be listed as priorities by associate foundations.

Key words: global warming, glacial recession, sea level rise, plant diversity, species migration, phenology, ex situ conservation