生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 208-215.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13160

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火干扰对云南苍山地表蜘蛛群落生活型组成及季节动态的影响

马艳滟1, 杨自忠2, 冯萍1, 李巧1,*()   

  1. 1 西南林业大学林学院, 云南昆明 650224
    2 云南省药用昆虫及蛛形类资源开发利用工程实验室, 云南大理 671000
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-12 接受日期:2014-02-20 出版日期:2014-03-20 发布日期:2014-04-03
  • 通讯作者: 李巧
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31060070)、中国博士后科学基金(20090450677)、云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室开放基金(ZK11B301)、云南省科技厅应用基础研究面上项目(2009CD092)和云南省重点学科森林保护建设经费(XKZ200905)

The influence of fire disturbance on the biotype structure and seasonal dynamics of ground-dwelling spider on Cangshan Mountain, Yunnan Province

Yanyan Ma1, Zizhong Yang2, Ping Feng1, Qiao Li1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan 650224
    2 Key Laboratory of Medical Insects and Spiders Resources for Development & Utilization of Yunnan Province, Dali University, Dali 671000
  • Received:2013-07-12 Accepted:2014-02-20 Online:2014-03-20 Published:2014-04-03
  • Contact: Li Qiao

摘要:

为揭示不同蜘蛛类群对火干扰的敏感程度及蜘蛛群落外貌对环境变化产生的响应, 本文选取苍山针阔混交林2007年火烧迹地作为调查样地, 以无火烧记录的样地为对照, 运用陷阱法调查地表蜘蛛群落生活型及季节动态。研究结果显示: (1)火烧迹地中朱氏狂蛛(Zelotes zhui)(相对优势度 DV' =33.03)、晨豹蛛(Pardosa chionophila) (DV'=22.53)和西菱头蛛一种(Sibianor sp.1)(DV'=8.75)占明显优势; 而对照样地中龙隙蛛一种(Draconarius sp.2) (DV'=63.50)占绝对优势; (2)火烧迹地的定居型蜘蛛相对多度为25.82%, 显著少于游猎蜘蛛(P<0.001); 而对照样地的定居型蜘蛛相对多度为92.07%, 显著高于游猎蜘蛛(P<0.001); (3)火烧迹地地表蜘蛛优势类群随季节更替明显, 在夏季和冬季多度为低谷期; 对照样地优势类群稳定, 为漏斗蛛科蜘蛛。研究表明, 火干扰改变了苍山针阔混交林地表蜘蛛群落生活型组成, 降低了定居型蜘蛛的相对多度和地表蜘蛛群落的季节稳定性。

关键词: 地表蜘蛛, 森林火灾, 优势种, 生活方式, 季节消长, 自然保护区

Abstract

In order to demonstrate the influence of fire disturbance on the function, structure and seasonal dynamics of ground-dwelling spider assemblages, we chose a burned site and an unburned control site. Both study sites were in broadleaf-conifer mixed forest on Cangshan Mountain, Yunnan Province. The results showed that (1) Zelotes zhui (relative dominance value (DV') =33.03), Pardosa chionophila (DV'=22.53) and Sibianor sp. 1 (DV'=8.75) were obviously dominant at the burned site and that Draconarius sp. 2 (DV'=63.50) was absolutely dominant at the control site; (2) At the burned site, the relative abundance of web-builders was significantly lower than that of hunters (P<0.001), whereas the relative abundance of web-builders was significantly higher than that of hunters at the control site; and (3) As season changed, the dominant group fluctuated significantly at the burned, with the lowest abundance during the part of the summer with the maximum rainfall and during the coldest winter; the spider assemblages were stable at the control site, with agelenids consistently the dominant group. These results indicated that fire disturbance changes the community function and structure of ground-dwelling spiders in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Cangshan Mountain, increases the relative abundance of hunters and reduces the stability of ground-dwelling spider assemblages.

Key words: dwelling-spider, forest fire, dominant species, life type, seasonal variation, nature reserve