生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 129-140.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13150

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海南岛热带天然针叶林主要树种的空间格局及关联性

张俊艳1, 成克武2, 臧润国1,*()   

  1. 1 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室, 北京 100091
    2 河北农业大学园林与旅游学院, 河北保定 071000
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-02 接受日期:2013-09-21 出版日期:2014-03-20 发布日期:2014-04-03
  • 通讯作者: 臧润国
  • 基金资助:
    国家“十二五”科技支撑项目(2012BAD22B0103)

The spatial distribution patterns and associations of the principal trees and shrubs in a natural tropical coniferous forest on Hainan Island, China

Junyan Zhang1, Kewu Cheng2, Runguo Zang1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2 College of Landscape Architecture and Tourism, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, Hebei 071000
  • Received:2013-07-02 Accepted:2013-09-21 Online:2014-03-20 Published:2014-04-03
  • Contact: Zang Runguo

摘要:

天然针叶林在热带地区虽较为少见, 但其对维持热带地区的生物多样性和生境异质性具有特殊意义。在我国热带天然针叶林集中分布面积最大的海南霸王岭林区, 作者选择伴生阔叶树种优势度不同的两种典型南亚松(Pinus latteri)天然林(简称纯林和混交林), 采用点格局法分析了其林冠层、亚林层和林下层主要树种的空间分布格局及其关联性。结果表明: (1)纯林中林冠层的南亚松主要为聚集分布, 混交林中在较小尺度上为聚集分布, 在较大尺度上为随机分布。(2)纯林中亚林层树种在较小尺度上为聚集分布, 在较大尺度上为随机分布, 在混交林中主要为聚集分布。(3)纯林中林下层树种主要呈现为随机分布, 而在混交林中主要为聚集分布。(4)随着尺度的增加, 林冠层与其他两个层次的树种, 在纯林中表现出从空间无关联到正关联的变化趋势, 而在混交林中则表现出从空间无关联到负关联的变化趋势。(5)亚林层与林下层树种在各个尺度上都表现为空间正关联。由此可见, 热带天然针叶林中优势种南亚松对伴生阔叶树种的分布格局具有重要影响。

关键词: 点格局分析, 空间关联性, 热带天然针叶林, 针阔混交林, Pinus latteri, 海南岛

Abstract

Coniferous forests rarely occur in the tropics, but they play a unique role in maintaining biodiversity and habitat heterogeneity of tropical forest ecosystems. The Bawangling forest region (BFR) contains the largest tropical coniferous forest in China; this forest is dominated by Pinus latteri in the canopy layer and by a diverse variety of broadleaved species in the subcanopy and understory layers. Based on the relative dominance of the broadleaved species in the communities, we selected a “pure” stand and a mixed stand to analyze the spatial patterns and associations of the species in the canopy, subcanopy, and understory layers with a spatial point pattern analysis method. The results of the study were as follows: in the “pure” stand, the trees in the canopy layer showed aggregated patterns, whereas in the mixed stand, they showed aggregated patterns at smaller scales and random patterns at larger scales. In the “pure” stand, species in the subcanopy layer showed aggregated patterns at smaller scales and random patterns at larger scales, but they primarily showed aggregated patterns in the mixed stand. The trees in the understory layer showed random patterns in the “pure” stand and aggregated patterns in the mixed stand. With the increase in scale, the spatial associations between canopy and subcanopy species and between canopy and understory species changed from no association to positive associations in the “pure” stand. However, they changed from no association to negative associations in the mixed stand. The spatial associations between species in the subcanopy and understory layers were positive at all scales. These results indicate that the spatial patterns of broadleaved species are mainly controlled by the dominant conifers in the canopy layer in this natural tropical coniferous forest.

Key words: point pattern analysis, interspecific associations, tropical natural coniferous forest, mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest, Pinus latteri, Hainan Island