生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 192-201.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014157

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海南尖峰岭热带山地雨林60 ha动态监测样地群落结构特征

许涵1, 李意德1(), 林明献2, 吴建辉1, 骆土寿1, 周璋1, 陈德祥1, 杨怀2, 李广建3, 刘世荣4   

  1. 1 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所, 广州 510520
    2 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所试验站, 海南乐东 572542
    3 海南尖峰岭国家级自然保护区, 海南乐东 572542
    4 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-01 接受日期:2014-12-03 出版日期:2015-03-20 发布日期:2015-04-09
  • 基金资助:
    林业公益性行业科研专项(201104057)、中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(CAFYBB2011004、RITFYWZX200902和RITFYWZX- 201204)、国家自然科学基金(41201192)和尖峰岭国家级森林生态站运行费

Community characteristics of a 60 ha dynamics plot in the tropical montane rain forest in Jianfengling, Hainan Island

Han Xu1, Yide Li1,*(), Mingxian Lin2, Jianhui Wu1, Tushou Luo1, Zhang Zhou1, Dexiang Chen1, Huai Yang2, Guangjian Li3, Shirong Liu4   

  1. 1 Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520
    2 Experimental Station of Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Ledong, Hainan 572542
    3 Jianfengling National Nature Reserve, Ledong, Hainan 572542
    4 Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2014-08-01 Accepted:2014-12-03 Online:2015-03-20 Published:2015-04-09
  • Contact: Li Yide

摘要:

热带山地雨林是海南岛最占优势的植被类型, 以往对热带山地雨林的研究通常基于小尺度, 缺乏大尺度上的长期固定样地监测。作者基于海南岛尖峰岭地区60 ha (1,000 m × 600 m)植被动态监测大样地, 详细描述了该样地所属典型热带山地雨林的群落结构特征, 以期为更深入地揭示我国热带雨林地区的物种多样性及其维持机制提供背景资料。尖峰岭大样地20 m × 20 m样方水平上海拔和坡度分别在866.3-1,016.7 m和1.7°-49.3°间变化。大样地内共记录到439,676株存活的胸径≥1.0 cm的乔灌木植株, 除61个植株未确定种名外, 其他分属于62科155属290种。单位面积植株密度为0.7328株/m2 (含萌条和分枝), 20 m × 20 m尺度上单位面积物种数量为32-120种, 平均80种。植物属区系成分以热带性质为主, 共有136属, 占总属数的88.3%; 另有鼠李科鼠李属(Rhamnus)为世界分布, 木兰科拟单性木兰属(Parakmeria)为中国特有分布。按物种重要值排序, 大样地内最具优势(重要值大于2.0)的6个种分别为: 大叶蒲葵(Livistona saribus)、白颜树(Gironniera subaequalis)、厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis)、油丹(Alseodaphne hainanensis)、四蕊三角瓣花(Prismatomeris tetrandra)和海南韶子(Nephelium topengii)。优势科为樟科、壳斗科、茜草科和棕榈科, 重要值均超过了5.0。取样面积达到7.5 ha或取样数量达到2万株时, 计数到的物种数量达到261种, 占总物种数量的90.0%。大样地内稀有种和偶见种各占所有物种的20.7%和37.6%。样地内所有个体平均胸径5.22 cm, 植株径级分布呈明显的倒“J”形。本文为后续尖峰岭大样地的研究提供了背景资料, 尖峰岭大样地的建立也为热带地区生物多样性长期变化监测提供了一个基础平台。

关键词: 海南岛, 尖峰岭, 森林动态监测, 群落结构, 物种组成, 山地雨林, 生物多样性

Abstract

Tropical montane rain forest is the most dominant vegetation type on Hainan Island. However, most tropical montane rain forest studies have been conducted at relatively small spatial scales, as large-scale permanent plots are scarce. In this study, we described the community characteristics of one 60 ha plot established in the tropical montane rain forest of Jianfengling, Hainan Island. The goal is to provide basic information to further understanding of biodiversity mechanisms in the tropics of China. Plot altitude varied from 866.3 to 1,016.7 m and the slope varied from 1.7° to 49.3°. A total of 439,676 stems, with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 1.0 cm, belonging to 62 families, 155 genera and 290 species were recorded. The stem density including sprouts and branches was 0.7328 stem/m2. Species richness varied from 32-120 species with an average richness of 80 species. There were 136 (88.3%) genera belonging to tropical flora. The plot was a mix of common and endemic species. For example, Rhamnus of Rhamnaceae has a global range while Parakmeria of Magnoliaceae is an endemic genus to China. Livistona saribus, Gironniera subaequalis, Cryptocarya chinensis, Alseodaphne hainanensis, Prismatomeris tetrandra and Nephelium topengii were the most dominant species with importance values greater than 2.0. Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Rubiaceae and Arecaceae were the most dominant families with importance values larger than 5.0. When the sampling area is larger than 7.5 ha or the sampling stems are larger than 20 thousand, 261 species and up to 90% of all species were counted in the plot by species-area and species-individual curves. The percentage of rare and occasional species was 20.7% and 37.6% of all species, respectively. The average DBH of all stems was 5.22 cm and the DBH size class distribution was a typical inverse-J distribution. This study provides basic information for further studies in the Jianfengling 60 ha plot. Jianfengling 60 ha plot is also a platform for monitoring dynamics of long-term biodiversity in the tropics.

Key words: Hainan Island, Jianfengling, forest dynamic monitoring, community structure, species composition, montane rain forest, biodiversity