生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (4): 323-335.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.323

• 论文 •    下一篇

Beta多样性研究进展

陈圣宾, 欧阳志云(), 徐卫华, 肖燚   

  1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2010-03-02 接受日期:2010-07-12 出版日期:2010-07-20 发布日期:2010-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 欧阳志云
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: zyouyang@rcees.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展规划(973)项目(2009CB421105)

A review of beta diversity studies

Shengbin Chen, Zhiyun Ouyang(), Weihua Xu, Yi Xiao   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
  • Received:2010-03-02 Accepted:2010-07-12 Online:2010-07-20 Published:2010-07-20
  • Contact: Zhiyun Ouyang

摘要:

Beta多样性度量时空尺度上物种组成的变化, 是生物多样性的重要组成部分, 与许多生态学和进化生物学问题密切相关, 并且其信息可用于保护区选址和布局规划, 因此在最近10年间成为生物多样性研究的热点问题之一。多年来, 学者们利用各种度量方式和分析方法, 在不同地理区域, 对许多生物类群beta多样性的时空格局和形成机制进行了大量研究。本文主要从beta多样性的度量方法、时空格局、形成机制及其在生物多样性保护中的应用等几个方面, 总结了最近10多年来相关研究的进展。Whittaker(1960)最初提出beta多样性概念时就缺乏严格的定义, 随着概念的不断演化, 度量方法也同样呈现出多样化, 而度量手段的多样化非常不利于不同研究之间的比较。目前应用最普遍的度量方法是采用相似性指数, 如Jaccard和Sørensen指数。最近几年, 新的度量方法还在不断出现, 其中一些方法非常值得注意。Beta多样性具有时空尺度和分类尺度依赖性, 一般随分析粒度(grain)的增加而降低。虽然有些研究表明beta多样性随纬度增加而降低, 但学者们并没有达成共识。山区和生物地理区的交界处beta多样性都比较高, 因而需要在这些地区增加保护区的面积或者数量以囊括物种变化梯度。对时间尺度上beta多样性的研究表明, 气候变化确实导致了物种组成在时间上的变化, 并且物种在不同大陆和地区间的迁移导致了生物同质化。扩散过程和生态位过程共同决定了beta多样性, 只是这两个过程的相对重要性依尺度、地理区域和物种类群的不同而有所差异。综上所述, 我们认为未来beta多样性研究的热点问题是:(1)不同生物类群的进化历史和生物学特征对beta多样性的影响; (2)不同的时空尺度对beta多样性及其维持机制的影响; (3)人类活动对beta多样性的影响。

关键词: beta多样性, 扩散限制, 生态位限制, 时空格局

Abstract

Beta diversity is an important component of biological diversity, measuring compositional change in species assemblages across temporal and spatial scales. Beta diversity concerns not only a number of ecological and evolutionary issues, but can also guide the selection of protected areas and help to optimize conservation networks. It has thus become a hot topic in biodiversity research in recent years. Researchers have used various measures and analytical methods to investigate patterns of beta diversity and its underlying mechanisms for various taxa and in different regions. Here, we reviewed literature from the past decade pertaining to the following aspects of beta diversity: metrics, temporal and spatial patterns, determinants and applications in biodiversity conservation. Whittaker introduced the term beta diversity in 1960, but defined it vaguely. As the concept of beta diversity evolved, a high variety of measures were developed to quantify the concept. The comparison of results from different studies may be hindered by the variety of measures used to quantify beta diversity. Presently, the most popular methods for measuring beta diversity are similarity/dissimilarity coefficients such as Jaccard index and Sørensen index. In the last few years, several methods to quantify beta diversity have emerged, some of which are worth noting. Beta diversity depends on temporal scale, spatial scale and taxonomic scale, and decreases with increasing analytical grain size. There is no consensus among scientists that beta diversity decreases with latitude, i.e. that it is higher in tropics and lower near the poles. Beta diversity is high within mountain ranges and at the interface of biogeographic realms; thus, larger/more reserves are needed in these regions to cover the entire gradient of species turnover. Studies on beta diversity across temporal scales have shown that climatic change has resulted in shifts in species composition through time, and that the migration of species between different continents/regions has led to biotic homogenization. Based on a thorough review of beta diversity literature, we think the following questions might be the focus of future research: (1) the influence of evolutionary history and biological characteristics of different taxonomic groups on their beta diversity; (2) the influence of temporal/spatial scales on beta diversity and its determinants; and (3) the effect of anthropogenic activities on beta diversity.

Key words: beta diversity, dispersal limitation, niche limitation, temporal and spatial pattern