生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (2): 169-174.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.179

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河干流鱼类群落特征及其历史变化

茹辉军1,2, 王海军1,*(), 赵伟华1,2, 沈亚强1,2, 王勇1,2, 张晓可1,2   

  1. 1中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430072
    2中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-10-14 接受日期:2009-12-31 出版日期:2010-03-20 发布日期:2010-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 王海军
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: wanghj@ihb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    水利部公益性行业科研专项(2007SHZ1-19)

Fishes in the mainstream of the Yellow River: assemblage characteristics and historical changes

Ru Huijun1,2, Wang Haijun1,*(), Zhao Weihua1,2, Shen Yaqiang1,2, Wang Yong1,2, Zhang Xiaoke1,2   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2009-10-14 Accepted:2009-12-31 Online:2010-03-20 Published:2010-03-20
  • Contact: Wang Haijun

摘要:

为了解黄河干流鱼类群落现状及其历史变化, 于2008年春季(5-6月)和秋季(9-11月)开展了黄河干流鱼类调查。共记录到鱼类54种, 隶属于7目13科43属, 其中该流域特有种4种。种类组成以鲤形目为主, 占总数的68.5%。上游物种少, 群落较为简单, 中游和下游物种丰富, 群落较为复杂并且较相似, 种数自上游至下游逐渐增加。黄河鱼类在洄游、摄食、繁殖及栖息习性等方面呈现多样化特征。调查河段渔获物组成虽存在差异, 但都以黄颡鱼属(Pelteobagrusspp.)、鲇(Silurus asotus)、鲫(Carassius auratus)以及鮈亚科等小型鱼类为主, 小型化现象明显。对比历史资料分析显示, 黄河鱼类物种多样性和资源量均呈明显下降趋势, 特有种鱼类退化尤为显著, 推测水资源过度开发、大量水工建筑、水体污染以及不合理利用等人为因素是导致变化的主要原因。

关键词: 黄河, 鱼类群落, 物种多样性, 生态类型

Abstract

To explore the status of fish assemblage characteristics and historical changes, investigations on fish assemblage were carried out in the mainstream of the Yellow River in spring (May-June) and autumn (September-November) of 2008. A total of 54 fish species were collected, belonging to 13 families and 7 orders, among which 4 species were endemic to the river basin. Cypriniformes were dominant, accounting for 68.5% of the total species captured. Fish assemblages in the upper section were relative simple, while those in the middle and lower sections were much more complex. Species richness increased from upper to lower sections. The ecological guilds of fishes in the Yellow River showed great variety in migration, feeding, spawning and inhabit. Although the catch composition was different from section to section, the dominant groups were all small fishes, including Pelteobagrusspp., Silurus asotus,Carassius auratus, Gobioninae and so on and fishes showed miniaturization significantly. Compared with historical data, fish abundance and diversity in our samples were dramatically lower and the loss of endemic species was severe. Over exploitation of water resources, construction of hydraulic engineering infrastructure, water pollution and the unreasonable utilization of resource are potential underlying reasons for observed shifts in the fish assemblages.

Key words: the Yellow River, fish assemblage, species diversity, ecological guilds