生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (3): 310-317.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09041

• 论文 • 上一篇    

张家界大鲵人工放流效果及其影响因素分析

罗庆华1, 刘英2, 张立云2   

  1. 1 吉首大学大鲵研究所, 湖南张家界 427000
    2 张家界市畜牧水产局, 湖南张家界 427000
  • 收稿日期:2009-02-18 接受日期:2009-05-06 出版日期:2009-05-20 发布日期:2009-05-20
  • 基金资助:
    湖南省科技厅项目(06sk3055);湖南省科技厅项目(06JT1046);省教育厅资助科研项目(06C648)

Effectiveness of releasing artificially-bred Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) into the wild in Zhangjiajie, Hunan

Qinghua Luo1, Ying Liu2, Liyun Zhang2   

  1. 1 Institute of Chinese Giant Salamander, Jishou University, Zhangjiajie, Hunan 427000
    2 Bureau of Animal Husband and Aquiculture of Zhangjiajie City, Zhangjiajie, Hunan 427000
  • Received:2009-02-18 Accepted:2009-05-06 Online:2009-05-20 Published:2009-05-20

摘要:

大鲵(Andrias davidianus)是我国特有的两栖动物, 由于栖息地破坏和人类过度捕杀等, 种群数量急剧下降, 被列为我国II类保护野生动物。为探索大鲵人工放流的有效方法, 实现野生大鲵资源增殖, 作者对2002-2008年间在湖南张家界大鲵国家级自然保护区内进行的大鲵人工放流活动与放流效果进行了评估, 并通过对放流点的隐蔽物、水质及饵料生物等生境特点的分析, 探讨影响放流成败的因素。该保护区内共在9处大鲵原栖息地进行了11次人工放流活动, 共放流各种规格大鲵995尾, 其中4次成功。成功放流的大鲵为1-4.5 kg的性成熟个体, 雌雄比在1:1和1:1.5之间, 成功放流点均有良好的后期管理措施, 如建立保护站, 补充饵料等。虽然所选择的多数放流点生境基本能满足大鲵生长和繁殖的要求, 但由于受水质、饵料或安全某一因素的制约, 野生大鲵资源增殖效果不明显, 导致放流失败。因此我们认为依据野生大鲵繁殖的生境特征标准, 科学选择放流地点, 选择性成熟的大鲵在春季放流, 并进行完善的后期跟踪保护, 可能是大鲵人工放流成功和实现资源增殖的有效途径。

关键词: Andrias davidianus, 人工放流, 资源增殖, 野生种群, 生境

Abstract

Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is a native amphibian to China. It was listed as a Class II protected wildlife species under the state conservation law largely due to its sharply declined population size in the past two decades. Habitat destruction, habitat degradation and human over-exploitation have been considered as the primary causes of the declination. Designed to boost the wild population, a captive breeding program has been successfully established and artificially bred individuals have been released into the wild for many times in the Hunan Zhangjiajie Giant Salamander National Nature Reserve between 2002 and 2008. In 2007 and 2008, we examined these released salamanders to evaluate the effectiveness of the release. We also investigated covert, water quality and food organisms of the releasing sites to explore factors that may determine the success of release. A total of 995 different sized salamanders were identified as 11 cohorts at nine releasing sites. However, only four cohorts were identified as successful in terms of wild population size increase. In all successful sites, released salamanders were mature, weighing 1-4.5 kg, and sex ratios were between 1:1 and 1:1.5. Moreover, some protection measures were taken including food supplementation in these sites. Most releasing sites appeared to satisfy the demands for growth and reproduction of the salamander, however, most releases failed to boost the wild populations likely due to the limitation of the factors such as water quality, food organisms and safety. In conclusion, habitat traits of releasing sites and subsequent management measures, as well as individual size of salamanders were the major factors affecting the releasing effectiveness. In view of the habit of the salamanders, it is better to select mature salamanders for release in spring.

Key words: Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus), releasing into the wild, stock enhancement, population, habitat