生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (3): 245-254.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07396

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

边缘效应对山地湿性常绿阔叶林附生植物的影响

马文章1,2, 刘文耀1,3,*(), 杨礼攀1,2, 杨国平1   

  1. 1 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园昆明分部, 昆明 650231
    2 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
    3 Curtin University of Techology, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-07 接受日期:2008-04-01 出版日期:2008-05-20 发布日期:2008-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘文耀
  • 作者简介:*E-mail:Liuwy@xtbg.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(30470305);中国科学院百人计划项目(BRJH2002098)

Edge effects on epiphytes in montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest

Wenzhang Ma1,2, Wenyao Liu1,3,*(), Lipan Yang1,2, Guoping Yang1   

  1. 1 Kunming Division, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650231, China
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3 Curtin University of Techology, Perth WA 6845, Australia
  • Received:2008-01-07 Accepted:2008-04-01 Online:2008-05-20 Published:2008-05-20
  • Contact: Wenyao Liu

摘要:

作为热带、亚热带地区森林生态系统中重要组成成分之一的附生植物, 对环境变化尤为敏感。为了解附生植物对森林生境破碎化的响应, 本研究选择哀牢山北段徐家坝山地湿性常绿阔叶林因人为干扰而形成的四处森林边缘为研究对象, 分别在距离林缘10、20、40和80 m的位置设立样带, 采用树干取样法调查各样带内距地面0-2 m范围附生植物的物种组成、生物量和附生苔藓植物的生活型特征。结果显示: 边缘效应对单位面积附生植物的生物量和附生苔藓植物盖度均具有极显著的影响(P<0.001), 其中附生苔藓比附生蕨类对边缘效应更为敏感。边缘效应对附生苔藓植物的作用强度在各生活型之间存在着差异, 其中对丛集型(P=0.014)和交织型(P=0.030)的附生苔藓植物的影响最显著。综合附生植物在各样带的分布特征, 我们认为单位面积上附生植物的生物量和附生苔藓植物的盖度可作为指示森林边缘生境的重要指标。黄牛毛藓(Ditrichum pallidum)、角状刺枝藓(Wijkia hornschuchii)和格氏剪叶苔(Herbertus giraldianus)的分布具有指示林缘生境的意义, 而尖叶羽藓(Thuidium philibertii)、大羽藓(T. cymbifolium)、多疣麻羽藓(Claopodium pellucinerve)、波叶金枝藓(Pseudotrismegistia undulata)和扭叶藓(Trachypus bicolor)的分布局限于林内, 具有一定的保护价值。

关键词: 哀牢山, 附生苔藓, 附生蕨类, 生活型

Abstract

Epiphytes are important components in tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems, and are well-known for their sensitivity to environmental changes. To understand epiphyte’s response to forest fragmentation and edge effects, we established four plots at the edges of a montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan. Within each plot, we established four transects at 10, 20, 40, and 80 m from forest edge to study the species composition, biomass, and life form of epiphytes on host trunks 0-2 m above the ground. Distance to edge influenced biomass of epiphytes (P < 0.001) and coverage of epiphytic bryophytes ( P < 0.001). Epiphytic bryophytes were more sensitive to edge effects than epiphytic ferns. The intensity of edge effects were life-form specific, and turf ( P = 0.014) and weft forms (P = 0.030) both showed a pronounced response. Based on the distributional traits of epiphytes in all plots, we concluded that both the biomass of epiphytes and coverage of epiphytic bryophytes are biological indicators of forest edges. Furthermore,Ditrichum pallidum, Wijkia hornschuchii andHerbertus giraldianus are capable of indicating edge habitats, while the conservation status of Thuidium philibertii,T. cymbifolium, Claopodium pellucinerve, Pseudotrismegistia undulata and Trachypus bicolor deserve further attention because they are excluded from forest edges.

Key words: Ailao Mountain, epiphytic bryophyte, epiphytic fern, life-form, edge effects