生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 921-930.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019364

• 蝴蝶多样性观测专栏 •    下一篇

云南哀牢山、无量山国家级自然保护区蝴蝶种群动态及多样性

王群1, 郭志祥1, 李进斌1, 王凯博1, 吴文伟1, 浦恩堂1, 马方舟1,*(), 何成兴2,*()   

  1. 1云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所, 昆明650205 2生态环境部南京环境科学研究所/国家环境保护生物安全重点实验室, 南京210042
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-20 接受日期:2020-02-06 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-05-15
  • 通讯作者: 马方舟,何成兴
  • 作者简介:mfz@nies.org
    . E-mail: hechengxing69@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0507206);生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(SDZXWJZ1011)

Population dynamics and diversity of butterflies in Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan national nature reserves, Yunnan Province

Qun Wang1, Zhixiang Guo1, Jinbin Li1, Kaibo Wang1, Wenwei Wu1, Entang Pu1, Fangzhou Ma1,*(), Chengxing He2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resource, Yunnan Agricultural Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650205
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment; National Key Laboratory of Biosafety, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2019-11-20 Accepted:2020-02-06 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-05-15
  • Contact: Fangzhou Ma,Chengxing He

摘要:

蝴蝶是无脊椎动物中最受关注的类群和环境指示生物之一, 其种群动态及群落结构能快速地反映环境的状况。哀牢山和无量山国家级自然保护区具有复杂多样的生境, 含有丰富的动植物资源。为了有效地保护环境和资源, 2016‒2018年在这两个自然保护区开展了蝴蝶资源及其种群动态的研究。结果表明: 两地蝴蝶均具有较高的多样性水平, 且哀牢山蝴蝶多样性较无量山丰富。哀牢山共观测记录5科83属149种, 该地蝴蝶Shannon-Wiener指数(Hs′)为3.92, 物种丰富度为16.36, Simpson指数为0.97; 景东县无量山样区共记录蝴蝶5科88属143种, Shannon-Wiener指数(Hs′)为3.64, 物种丰富度为15.04, Simpson指数为0.96。哀牢山、无量山两个样区共有5科99属178种蝴蝶。生境分析表明两地蝴蝶均具有明显的垂直分布特征, 哀牢山蝴蝶主要分布在海拔1,100 m以下, 而无量山蝴蝶主要分布在1,100-1,400 m之间。调查时段分析表明, 两地蝴蝶主要分布在5-9月, 哀牢山8月蝴蝶种类较丰富, 而无量山9月蝴蝶种类较丰富。年份分析表明, 哀牢山、无量山两地均以2016年蝴蝶多样性最丰富, 这与适宜的气候及较弱的人为干扰有密切的关系。两地蝴蝶群落为中等相似, Jaccard相似性系数为0.64, 共有种有114种(64.05%)。鉴于无量山、哀牢山蝴蝶多样性较丰富, 且有13种近危物种、3种易危物种和56种个体数极低(≤ 10头)的未列入红色名录的物种, 因此蝴蝶保护工作刻不容缓。

关键词: 蝴蝶, 新平县哀牢山, 景东县无量山, 种群动态, 生物多样性

Abstract:

Butterflies are one of the most concerned taxonomic groups and environmental indicators among invertebrate. Population dynamics and community structure of butterflies can quickly and effectively reflect the environmental situation of Ecosystem. Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan national nature reserves are rich in animal and plant resources with complicated and diversified habitats. To effectively protect and utilize environment and resources, this study researched population quantitative characteristics and diversity of butterflies in the two reserves during 2016 to 2018. Both Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan had high diversity levels, though Ailaoshan was more abundant than Wuliangshan. In Ailaoshan, 149 species were attributed to 5 families and 83 genera with Hs′ of 3.92, a Simpson’s index (D) of 0.97, and species richness (R) of 16.36. In Wuliangshan, 143 species were attributed to 5 families and 88 genera with Hs′ of 3.64, D of 0.96, and R of 15.04. In total among both areas, 178 species were identified, belonging to 5 families and 99 genera. The two regions shared similarities in butterfly communities, with a Similarity index of 0.64. There was evidence of vertical butterfly distribution Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan as most butterflies were distributed below altitude 1,100 meters in Ailaoshan, and between 1,100 to 1,400 meters in Wuliangshan. There were seasonal differences as well, as the butterflies mainly appear from May to September, but species abundances peaked in Ailaoshan in August while Wuliangshan peaked in September. Annual analysis showed 2016 had a greater abundance of butterflies, which is closely related to suitable climate and weak human disturbance. Overall, 13 threatened and 3 vulnerable species according to China Species Red List, and 56 unlisted species with less than 10 individuals were recorded in Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan national nature reserves. Therefore, butterfly protection is urgent and recommended in these regions.

Key words: butterfly, Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve, Wuliangshan National Nature Reserve, population dynamics, biodiversity