生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1470-1480.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021146

• 研究报告:植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原高山区和泛北极地区种子植物多倍体比较

张军1,2, 彭焕文2,3,*(), 夏富才1,*(), 王伟2,3   

  1. 1.北华大学林学院, 吉林吉林 132013
    2.中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-18 接受日期:2021-07-03 出版日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2021-07-27
  • 通讯作者: 彭焕文,夏富才
  • 作者简介:E-mail: xfc0707@163.com
    E-mail: penghuanwen@ibcas.ac.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31770233);国家自然科学基金(31770231);国家自然科学基金(32011530072)

A comparison of seed plants’ polyploids between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine and the Pan-Arctic regions

Jun Zhang1,2, Huanwen Peng2,3,*(), Fucai Xia1,*(), Wei Wang2,3   

  1. 1 Forestry College, Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin 132013
    2 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3 University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2021-04-18 Accepted:2021-07-03 Online:2021-11-20 Published:2021-07-27
  • Contact: Huanwen Peng,Fucai Xia

摘要:

多倍化是植物快速适应极端环境胁迫的一种重要机制。青藏高原高山区和泛北极地区具有相似的极端低温环境, 且两地的植物曾有密切的交流和联系。然而, 多倍体物种对两地植物区系生物多样性的贡献是否相同仍不清楚。我们系统地收集两地已有染色体数目和倍性报道的种子植物物种名录, 共计1,770种, 其中青藏高原高山区774种, 泛北极地区996种; 同时也相应地收集了每个物种的生活型信息。分析显示青藏高原高山区多倍体植物的比例为20.9%, 泛北极地区多倍体植物比例为61.5%; 青藏高原高山区一年生草本、多年生草本和木本植物中多倍体的比例分别为20.7%、21.6%和12.8%, 泛北极地区一年生草本、多年生草本和木本植物中多倍体的比例分别为60.2%、65.5%和38.3%。这些结果表明泛北极地区比青藏高原高山区具有较高比例的多倍体物种。青藏高原高山植物区系在渐新世‒中新世之交开始兴起, 此时高原已达到一定高度, 而后的高寒环境相对稳定, 致使多倍体物种相对较少; 而泛北极地区植物区系在3-4 Ma兴起, 此后经历了冰期‒间冰期、海平面波动等反复剧烈的气候环境变化, 可能促进了大量的多倍化事件发生。本研究通过比较青藏高原高山区和泛北极地区植物多倍体物种的比例, 揭示了两地多倍体比例差异的可能原因, 将提高对多倍体适应极端环境的理解。

关键词: 青藏高原, 泛北极地区, 多倍化, 生活型, 极端生境, 气候变化

Abstract

Aims: Polyploidization is an important mechanism for plants to adapt to extreme environments. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) alpine and Pan-Arctic regions have a similar low-temperature environment, and there were closely biotic exchanges between the two regions. However, it is unclear whether the QTP alpine and Pan-Arctic floras have similar polyploid buildup or not. Here, we compared polyploid proportions between these two floras and explored the potential causes for the difference.
Methods: By comprehensive searches in the databases and various literatures, we obtained species lists with chromosome numbers and ploidy of seed plants for the QTP alpine and Pan-Arctic regions, and then calculated polyploid proportion in totality as well as polyploid proportion for different life forms in the two regions.
Results: A total of 1,770 species of seed plants with chromosome numbers were collected, of which 774 occur in the QTP alpine region and 996 occur in the Pan-Arctic. According to the statistical analyses, the proportions of polyploid plants are 20.9% in the QTP alpine region and 61.5% in the Pan-Arctic. The proportions of polyploids of annual herbs, perennial herbs and woody plants in the QTP alpine region are 20.7%, 21.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. The proportions of polyploids of annual herbs, perennial herbs and woody plants in the Pan-Arctic are 60.2%, 65.5%, and 38.3%, respectively.
Conclusions: The polyploid proportions in totality and for different life forms in the Pan-Arctic are higher than those in the QTP alpine region obviously, which is associated with the different evolutionary history of the two floras, as well as their different geological and climatic events. The modernization of the QTP alpine flora took place around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary, and since then the QTP has had a relatively constant low-temperate environment, whereas the Pan-Arctic flora did not develop until 3-4 Ma, and since then the Pan-Arctic flora experienced repeated glacial and interglacial periods and repeated sea-level fluctuations, which might have resulted in the polyploidization of plants. This study contributes to our knowledge on how polyploids adapt to low-temperate environments.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Pan-Arctic, polyploidization, life form, extreme environments, climate change