生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 332-339.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016276

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云南泸水高黎贡山高山生境的鸟兽多样性

高歌1, 王斌2, 何臣相2, 罗旭1,*()   

  1. 1 .西南林业大学西南地区生物多样性保育国家林业局重点实验室, 昆明 650224
    2.云南高黎贡山国家级自然保护区泸水管理局, 云南泸水 673100
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-29 接受日期:2017-01-11 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-04-07
  • 通讯作者: 罗旭
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31660612)、云南省极小种群物种拯救保护项目(2015)和云南省林学一流学科建设项目资助

Biodiversity of birds and mammals in alpine habitat of Mt. Gaoligong, Lushui County, Yunnan

Ge Gao1, Bin Wang2, Chenxiang He2, Xu Luo1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Conservation in Southwest China of State Forestry Administration, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2 Lushui Management Bureau of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Lushui, Yunnan 673100
  • Received:2016-09-29 Accepted:2017-01-11 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-04-07
  • Contact: Luo Xu

摘要:

高黎贡山位于印缅生物多样性保护热点地区, 但由于地形复杂、交通不便等客观原因的限制, 以往对高黎贡山高山生境的鸟兽多样性调查数据较为缺乏。2014年10月至2016年6月, 我们利用红外相机在高黎贡山高山环境开展鸟类和兽类物种多样性调查, 以期对鸟兽多样性数据进行补充。调查期间, 于泸水辖区内选取北(金满)、中(听命湖)、南(片马垭口) 3个样区, 每个样区布设20台红外相机。累计布设红外相机10,400台日, 拍摄到1,342张有效照片。共记录到18种兽类和44种鸟类, 分属9目28科, 包括3种国家一级、8种国家二级重点保护动物, IUCN濒危(EN)物种3种、易危(VU)物种3种、近危(NT)物种2种。相对丰富度较高的物种包括金色林鸲(Tarsiger chrysaeus)、血雉(Ithaginis cruentus)、光背地鸫(Zoothera mollissima)、灰颈鼠兔(Ochotona forresti)、小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)等。记录到高黎贡山鸟类新记录1种: 黑胸歌鸲(Luscinia pectoralis)。金满样区1个年周期的监测结果显示, 高黎贡山高山生境鸟兽物种多样性有季节差异, 在5-10月动物活动频繁, 垂直迁移和鸟类的秋季迁徙对高山物种组成影响较大。本调查对高黎贡山高山环境的鸟兽多样性进行了有效补充, 可为高黎贡山高山鸟兽物种的保护和管理提供科学依据。

关键词: 高黎贡山, 高山生境, 红外相机, 物种丰富度

Abstract:

Gaoligong Mountains, known for its richest biodiversity, locates in the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot. However, our knowledge of the fauna in the alpine habitat of Mt. Gaoligong is still lacking due to complex terrain and poor accessibility. From October 2014 to June 2016, infrared cameras were established to monitor the biodiversity of mammals and birds in the alpine habitat of Mt. Gaoligong, Lushui County, Yunnan. In this survey, we selected three sample plots, North (Jinman), Central (Tingming Lake), and South (Pianma Pass), and in each sample plot, 20 cameras were established for 10,400 camera trapping days and 1,342 effective images were obtained. We identified 18 species of mammals and 44 species of birds belonging to 9 orders and 28 families, including 11 species listed as State Key Protected Wild Animals. The most abundant species was Tarsiger chrysaeus, along with Ithaginis cruentus, Zoothera mollissima, Ochotona forresti, and Ailurus fulgens. Luscinia pectoralis was recorded for the first time in Mt. Gaoligong. A one year survey at the Jinman sample plot revealed that faunal diversity in the alpine habitat had strongly seasonality, i.e. the months from May to October had much higher abundance than the other months. This was a consequence of the high immigration rate to alpine habitats during this period due to altitudinal movement and autumn migration. This survey is the first time to use infrared cameras for alpine faunal surveys at Mt Gaoligong, and the generated data provided a scientific basis for the protection and management of this nature reserve.

Key words: Mt. Gaoligong, alpine habitat, camera traps, species richness