生物多样性 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 22528.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022528

所属专题: 传粉生物学

• 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂秋冬期传粉植物多样性比较

吴帆, 刘深云, 江虎强, 王茜, 陈开威, 李红亮*()   

  1. 中国计量大学生命科学学院, 浙江省生物计量及检疫检验重点实验室, 杭州 310018
  • 收稿日期:2022-09-15 接受日期:2022-12-08 出版日期:2023-05-20 发布日期:2023-03-21
  • 通讯作者: * E-mail: hlli@cjlu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技部基础资源调查专项(2018FY100405);国家自然科学基金(3217030483);国家自然科学基金(332000331);浙江省自然科学基金(LQ21C030007)

Pollination difference between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica during the late autumn and winter

Fan Wu, Shenyun Liu, Huqiang Jiang, Qian Wang, Kaiwei Chen, Hongliang Li*()   

  1. Biometrology and Inspection & Quarantine, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018
  • Received:2022-09-15 Accepted:2022-12-08 Online:2023-05-20 Published:2023-03-21
  • Contact: * E-mail: hlli@cjlu.edu.cn

摘要:

中华蜜蜂(中蜂, Apis cerana cerana)和意大利蜜蜂(意蜂, Apis mellifera ligustica)的传粉对维持植物生态系统的稳定性和提高农作物的产量和品质具有重要意义, 而两者传粉行为却有不同。本文旨在比较秋冬期低温情况下中蜂和意蜂本地传粉植物多样性。在秋冬期, 观察和统计杭州下沙高教园区内中蜂和意蜂传粉过程中采集花粉的蜜蜂数量, 收集采集蜂携粉足内的花粉团后, 分别通过光学显微镜和扫描电镜获得的花粉形态特征初步鉴定花粉种类, 然后利用核酮糖-1,5-双磷酸羧化酶(ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, rbcl)基因引物扩增相应植物DNA条形码序列进一步明确花粉种类。最后综合分析秋冬期, 中蜂和意蜂采集花粉的差异。研究结果显示: 中蜂和意蜂在秋冬期低温下均可传粉, 但中蜂对低温的适应能力较强, 在上午8:30-9:30其传粉活动频率显著比意蜂高(P < 0.05)。对于不同开花植物, 中蜂和意蜂大多都可以传粉, 但中蜂偏向于采集葎草(Humulus scandens)、月季(Rosa chinensis)、枇杷(Eriobotrya laoshanica)和中华常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis)等本土低温开花植物的花粉, 而意蜂采集厚皮香(Ternstroemia gymnanthera)、甘菊(Chrysanthemum boreale)和小百日菊(Zinnia baageana)等花粉较多。在秋冬期低温条件下, 中蜂和意蜂都可为多种植物传粉, 但中蜂对本土开花植物的传粉植物要比意蜂更具有偏好性。中蜂和意蜂在秋冬期传粉多样性和差异调查将有利于进一步完善蜜蜂访花规律和偏好, 为该地区生态保护提供理论依据。

关键词: 中华蜜蜂, 意大利蜜蜂, 蜂花粉, 扫描电子显微镜, DNA条形码

Abstract

Aims: The pollination behaviors of Apis cerana cerana (Acc) and Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) have a significant meaning in maintaining ecosystem stability and improving crop yield and quality. However, their pollination behaviors are different. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences of pollinating habit and plant diversity between the two species under low temperature during the late autumn and winter periods.
Methods: We observed the pollination process of Acc and Aml, and collected the pollen in Xiasha Higher Education Campus of Hangzhou City during the late autumn and winter periods. The pollen morphology was analyzed by ordinary and scanning electron microscope, and further determined based on the gene ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcl) amplified and DNA barcode. Finally, the diversity of pollinating plants was compared according to the pollen species during the late autumn and winter.
Results: Both Acc and Aml can pollinate the local plants during the late autumn and winter periods, but Acc had better adaptability and pollination frequency in the morning from 8:30 to 9:30 (P < 0.05). For different plants, Acc and Aml can pollinate many kinds of plant. Acc tended to collect pollen of Humulus scandens, Rosa chinensis, Eriobotrya laoshanica, and Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, while Aml was partial to collect pollen of Ternstroemia gymnanthera, Chrysanthemum boreale, and Zinnia baageana.
Conclusions: In general, Acc and Aml can pollinate many kinds of plant during autumn and winter, and Acc have more extensive plant source. The investigation of pollination diversity and differences between Acc and Aml during the late autumn and winter periods will be helpful to study the pollination rules and preferences of honeybees, and provide theoretical for ecological protection in Hangzhou City.

Key words: Apis cerana cerana, Apis mellifera ligustica, bee pollen, scanning electron microscope, DNA barcode