生物多样性

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扬州宝应湖底栖大型无脊椎动物的生物多样性及其变化

胡芮1,王儒晓1,李萌1,邢雨辉1,潘达1,徐海根2,孙红英1   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学生命科学学院
    2. 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-17 修回日期:2020-04-26 出版日期:2020-09-12 发布日期:2020-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 孙红英

Biodiversity and spatiotemporal variations of benthic macroinvertebrates in Baoying Lake, Yangzhou, Jiangsu

Rui Hu1,Ruxiao Wang1,Meng Li1,Yuhui Xing1,Da Pan1,Haigen Xu2,Hongying Sun1   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University
    2. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment

  • Received:2020-01-17 Revised:2020-04-26 Online:2020-09-12 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: Hongying Sun

摘要: 2015年至2019年对扬州宝应湖底栖大型无脊椎动物进行野外调查和采样,联合经典形态学和高通量测定DNA条形码方法进行物种鉴定,共记录3门5纲57种。其中,软体动物门23种,隶属2纲9科(腹足纲7科15种,双壳纲2科8种);环节动物门寡毛纲12种,隶属2科;节肢动物门22种,隶属2纲6科(软甲纲4科5种,昆虫纲2科17种)。腹足类是优势类群,5年间的密度占比均在65%以上。其中的优势种是赤豆螺(Bithynia fuchsiana)、槲豆螺(Bithynia misella)和长角涵螺(Alocinma longicornis)。论文进一步分析了这些大型无脊椎动物多样性和群落结构的年度变化,Margalef丰富度指数(2.27±0.28),Simpson多样性指数(0.82±0.02)和Pielou均匀度指数(0.78±0.08)在5年间呈现明显的波动变化。应用Shannon-Wiener指数(H′)和污染生物指数(BI)对水质状况的生物评价结果表明,湖区水体环境在5年间均呈现不同程度的污染状态,这与过度围湖水产养殖等经济活动引起水体富营养化有一定关系。本文基于底栖大型无脊椎动物生物多样性时空变化的数据和信息为宝应湖将来的保护管理提供了有益的见解。

关键词: 江苏扬州, 宝应湖, 底栖大型无脊椎动物, DNA条形码, 生物多样性, 群落结构, 水质生物评价

Abstract: From 2015 to 2019, biodiversity and community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates of Baoying Lake, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, were investigated employing both morphological identification and DNA barcoding. A total of 57 species, assigned to three phyla and five classes, were obtained, of which, 23 molluscs (including 15 gastropods, 8 bivalves), 12 oligochaetes, 22 arthropods (including five malacostracans, 17 insects). The gastropods constitute the most dominant group, accounting for more than 65% of the total individual numbers, with three dominant species, Bithynia fuchsiana, Bithynia misella, and Alocinma longicornis. Further surveys on the annual variation of species diversity and community structure showed that the mean values of three biodiversity indexes (Margalef, Simpson, and Pielou) were 2.27±0.28, 0.82±0.02, and 0.78±0.08, respectively. The values of the three indexes fluctuated within the five years. The biotic assessment of water quality based on both Shannon-Wiener index(H’) and the Biotic index(BI) suggests that, the water environment of Baoying lake suffered pollution to different extent from 2016 to 2019, which could be related to water eutrophication caused by frequent human activities, such as overstocking of barrier net aquaculture of single aquatic species. On the basis of past biodiversity and spatiotemporal variations of benthic macroinvertebrates, we provide useful insight to the future management of Baoying Lake.

Key words: Yangzhou, Baoying Lake, benthic macroinvertebrate, DNA barcode, biodiversity, community structure, bioassessment of water quality