生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (12): 1558-1569.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020023

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

扬州宝应湖底栖大型无脊椎动物的生物多样性及其变化

胡芮1, 王儒晓1, 杜诗雨1, 李萌1, 邢雨辉1, 潘达1, 徐海根2,*(), 孙红英1,*()   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学生命科学学院, 南京 210023
    2. 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-17 接受日期:2020-04-30 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2020-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 徐海根,孙红英
  • 作者简介:xhg@nies.org
    : E-mail: sunhongying@njnu.edu.cn;
    第一联系人:

    # 共同第一作者 Co-first authors

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0507206);生态环境部生物多样性保护专项

Biodiversity and spatiotemporal variations of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Baoying Lake, Yangzhou, Jiangsu

Rui Hu1, Ruxiao Wang1, Shiyu Du1, Meng Li1, Yuhui Xing1, Da Pan1, Haigen Xu2,*(), Hongying Sun1,*()   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023
    2. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2020-01-17 Accepted:2020-04-30 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: Haigen Xu,Hongying Sun

摘要:

底栖大型无脊椎动物作为水环境监测的重要指示生物, 其群落结构和多样性能够有效地反映水环境的健康状况。为了更好地了解扬州宝应湖大型底栖动物的群落多样性, 本文于2015-2019年对扬州宝应湖底栖大型无脊椎动物进行野外调查和采样, 联合经典形态学和高通量测定DNA条形码方法进行物种鉴定, 进一步分析了这些大型无脊椎动物群落结构和多样性的年度变化, 并应用Shannon-Wiener指数(H′)和污染生物指数(biotic index, BI)对水质状况进行生物评价。结果显示: 共记录大型底栖动物3门5纲57种, 其中软体动物门23种, 隶属2纲9科(腹足纲7科15种, 双壳纲2科8种); 环节动物门寡毛纲12种, 隶属2科; 节肢动物门22种, 隶属2纲6科(软甲纲4科5种, 昆虫纲2科17种)。腹足纲是优势类群, 5年间的密度占比均在65%以上。优势种是赤豆螺(Bithynia fuchsiana)、槲豆螺(B. misella)和长角涵螺(Alocinma longicornis)。Margalef丰富度指数(2.27 ± 0.28)、Simpson优势度指数(0.82 ± 0.02)和Pielou均匀度指数(0.78 ± 0.08)在5年间呈现明显的波动变化。对水质状况的生物评价结果表明, 湖区水体环境在5年间均呈现不同程度的污染状态, 这与过度围湖水产养殖等经济活动引起水体富营养化有一定关系。

关键词: 扬州, 宝应湖, 底栖大型无脊椎动物, DNA条形码, 生物多样性, 群落结构, 水质生物学评价

Abstract

Benthic macroinvertebrates serve as important indicator organisms for water environment monitoring, and the study of their community structure and biodiversity can effectively reflect the health of the water body. From 2015 to 2019, we investigated the community structure and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Baoying Lake, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. Using both morphological traits and DNA barcoding, we identified a total of 57 species. Assigned to three phyla and five classes, these species included: 23 molluscs (15 gastropods and 8 bivalves); 12 oligochaetes; and 22 arthropods (5 malacostracans and 17 insects). Gastropods constituted the most dominant group, accounting for more than 65% of density ratio during five years. The three most abundant gastropods were Bithynia fuchsiana, B. misella, and Alocinma longicornis. Surveys on the annual variation of species diversity and community structure showed mean values of the Margalef abundance index, Simpson dominance index and Pielou evenness index at 2.27 ± 0.28, 0.82 ± 0.02, and 0.78 ± 0.08, respectively. Biotic assessments of water quality based on both the Shannon-Wiener index (H') and the biotic index (BI) suggested varying intensities of pollutants in the Baoying Lake between 2016 and 2019. This variation is likely related to anthropogenic eutrophication, notably overstocking during barrier net aquaculture.

Key words: Yangzhou, Baoying Lake, benthic macroinvertebrates, DNA barcode, biodiversity, community structure, bioassessment of water quality