生物多样性 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (7): 21495.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021495

• 纪念第19届国际植物学大会召开5周年专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国苏铁属植物资源和保护

席辉辉1,2, 王祎晴1,2, 潘跃芝1, 许恬3, 湛青青4, 刘健1, 冯秀彦1,*(), 龚洵1,*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院昆明植物研究所资源植物与生物技术实验室, 昆明 650201
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3.南宁植物园(南宁青秀山风景名胜区旅游开发有限公司), 南宁 530029
    4.中国科学院华南植物园园艺中心引种保育部, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-01 接受日期:2022-03-04 出版日期:2022-07-20 发布日期:2022-05-23
  • 通讯作者: 冯秀彦,龚洵
  • 作者简介:fengxiuyan@mail.kib.ac.cn
    *E-mail: gongxun@mail.kib.ac.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31970230)

Resources and protection of Cycas plants in China

Xi Huihui1,2, Wang Yiqing1,2, Pan Yuezhi1, Xu Tian3, Zhan Qingqing4, Liu Jian1, Feng Xiuyan1,*(), Gong Xun1,*()   

  1. 1. Department of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3. Nanning Qingxiushan Scenic and Historic Tourism Development Co., Ltd, Nanning Botanical Garden, Nanning 530029
    4. Collection & Conservation Department, Horticulture Center, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2021-12-01 Accepted:2022-03-04 Online:2022-07-20 Published:2022-05-23
  • Contact: Feng Xiuyan,Gong Xun

摘要:

苏铁类植物含2科10属, 是现存种子植物最原始的类群之一, 具有重要的科学研究和保护价值。苏铁属(Cycas)是唯一在中国有自然分布的苏铁类植物, 约20种, 多数种类为中国特有。中国的苏铁属植物主要分布于西南地区和东南沿海, 大部分种类为狭域分布的类群, 其生存繁衍受到了严重的威胁, 均被列为国家一级重点保护野生植物。基于文献资料收集整理和野外调查, 本文对中国苏铁属植物的研究和保护进行了阶段性总结。介绍了中国苏铁属植物分类研究、地理分布; 阐述了中国苏铁植物生存面临的主要威胁及相应的保护措施, 提出了保护方案的制定应遵循遗传学特征等科学依据。文中总结了我国苏铁植物保护科研工作中存在的5个主要问题: (1)苏铁植物基础科学问题有待进一步研究, (2)苏铁植物生境破坏较为严重, (3)人为盗采贩卖依然猖獗而苏铁植物园林园艺育种事业却举步不前, (4)苏铁自身生物学特性导致繁殖困难, (5)迁地保护难以保证苏铁种质“纯洁性”等, 同时针对这些问题提出相应建议, 以期为我国苏铁属植物的研究、保护以及可持续利用工作提供参考。

关键词: 苏铁属, 多样性, 保护成效和保护建议, 物种与分布

Abstract

Background & Aim: Cycads include two families and 10 genera, representing one of the most primitive taxa of the extant seed plants, and hold important value to scientific research and conservation. Among cycads, only about 20 species within the genus Cycas have a natural distribution within China, most of which are also endemic to China. These species are primarily found in the southwest and southeast coast of China, with most occupying a narrowly distributed area. All species in this group of Cycas have been classified as first-class national key protected wild plants in China due to the existence of serious threats to their survival and reproduction. In this review, we aim to familiarize members of the public with these important plants while also encouraging their protection.
Methods: This paper summarizes the status of research and protection of cycads in China by aggregating data available from the published literature and our field investigations.
Result: By summarizing the taxonomic research and geographical distribution of cycads in China, we highlight the principal threats to the survival of cycads in China and describe protective measures that can be used to counter these threats. Further, we suggest that certain scientific evidence, such as genetic characteristics, are critical factors when determining effective methods of protection.
Conclusion & Suggestions: We summarize five main issues related to the scientific research and conservation of cycads in China: (1) further research into the basic science of cycads is required, (2) the destruction of natural cycad habitats is a serious concern, (3) illegal harvesting and trafficking of cycads remain rampant, while legitimate cycad gardening and horticultural breeding businesses are in need of expansion, (4) certain biological characteristics of cycads lead to reproductive difficulties, (5) there are inherent difficulties in ex situ conservation for guaranteeing the preservation of germplasm purity among species of cycads. In addition, we propose specific solutions for these issues in order to provide a reference for improving research, protection, and the sustainable legal utilization of cycads in China in the future.

Key words: Cycas, diversity, conservation effectiveness and recommendations, species and distribution