生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1279-1287.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021319

• 生态系统原真性和完整性专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家公园生态系统完整性的内涵及评价框架: 以东北虎豹国家公园为例

蒋亚芳1, 田静1, 赵晶博2, 唐小平1,*()   

  1. 1.国家林业和草原局调查规划设计院/国家公园研究院, 北京 100714
    2.吉林省林业调查规划院, 长春 130022
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-15 接受日期:2021-10-20 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐小平
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: tang8043@126.com

The connotation and assessment framework of national park ecosystem integrity:A case study of the Amur Tiger and Leopard National Park

Yafang Jiang1, Jing Tian1, Jingbo Zhao2, Xiaoping Tang1,*()   

  1. 1 Academy of Forest Inventory and Planning/ National Park Research Institute, National Forest and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100714
    2 Jilin Provincial Institute of Forest Inventory and Planning, Changchun 130022
  • Received:2021-08-15 Accepted:2021-10-20 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Xiaoping Tang

摘要:

保护自然生态系统的完整性是我国建立国家公园的主要目标之一, 《国家公园设立规范》(GB/T 39737-2021)已将生态系统完整性作为国家公园的准入条件生态重要性的认定指标之一, 但目前对国家公园生态系统完整性的内涵还没有统一定义, 并缺乏具体的评价体系。本文在国内外相关研究的基础上, 结合我国国家公园体制试点成果及第一批国家公园设立实践, 提出了国家公园生态系统完整性的基本内涵及评价指标体系, 以期为今后设立国家公园时划定边界范围或评估国家公园管理成效提供理论依据。作者提出, 应从生态系统结构和过程完整性、功能完整性、空间格局完整性3个维度对我国国家公园生态系统完整性进行综合评价。以东北虎豹国家公园为例, 体制试点以来, 东北虎(Panthera tigris altaica)和东北豹(P. pardus orientalis)等顶级食肉动物的食物链相对完整, 虎、豹野生种群从俄罗斯进入、定居、繁衍、扩散的路径清晰, 种群稳定增长、栖息地质量持续改善, 生物多样性日益丰富, 国家公园正式设立范围划定时充分考虑了生态系统完整性保护, 生态系统完整性评级为优秀, 为国家公园可持续发展奠定了良好基础。

关键词: 国家公园, 生态系统完整性, 东北虎豹国家公园, 生物多样性, 完整性评价

Abstract

Background: Ecosystem integrity is one of the management goals of China's national parks, and ecosystem integrity is also one of the criteria when planning the national park territory. However, the interpretation of the term “ecosystem integrity” as well as a standard assessment framework has not yet reached a consensus.
Aims: This paper aims to put forward a comprehensive interpretation of the term “ecosystem integrity” based on previous literature. We also present a succinct and efficient framework to assess the ecosystem integrity of China's national parks. We suggest that structure and process integrity, functional integrity, and spatial pattern integrity should be considered when assessing the ecosystem integrity of a national park. We then applied the framework to evaluate the ecosystem integrity of the Amur Tiger and Leopard National Park in China.
Results and Discussions: Results indicate that since the establishment of the national park system pilot, there are complete food chains with the Amur tiger and Amur leopard as top carnivores within the national park pilot territory. Also, a great amount of Amur tiger and Amur leopard have returned and resettled back to China from Russia. Population sizes of both Amur tiger and Amur leopard, their habitat quality, and their regional biodiversity have steadily increased over the past years.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the boundary of the Amur Tiger and Leopard National Park is reasonably proposed due to the high regional ecosystem integrity, which lies a solid foundation for the sustainable development of the national park.

Key words: national park, ecosystem integrity, Amur Tiger and Leopard National Park, biodiversity, integrity assessment