生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1554-1564.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021144

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

野生绿孔雀生态学及保护生物学研究进展

顾伯健, 王放()   

  1. 复旦大学生命科学学院生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-15 接受日期:2021-09-26 出版日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2021-11-12
  • 通讯作者: 王放
  • 作者简介:E-mail: wfang@fudan.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    质兰基金会“云南野生绿孔雀极小种群致危因子研究及保护能力提升”(2019100551A)

A review on the ecology and conservation biology of green peafowl (Pavo muticus)

Bojian Gu, Fang Wang()   

  1. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2021-04-15 Accepted:2021-09-26 Online:2021-11-20 Published:2021-11-12
  • Contact: Fang Wang

摘要:

绿孔雀(Pavo muticus)是我国国家I级重点保护野生动物, 也是中国传统文化中具有重要代表意义的物种。在历史上, 绿孔雀曾广泛分布于我国南部大部分地区, 但目前在国内只分布于云南省部分地区。在国外有绿孔雀分布的东南亚国家, 绿孔雀同样经历了从广布到局部甚至零星分布的严重退缩。关于野生绿孔雀生态学和种群现状的研究已开展了不少工作, 但仍有许多空缺; 而该物种面临的生存威胁给保护和管理工作带来了巨大挑战。本文通过梳理国内外野生绿孔雀生态学和保护生物学方面的研究, 阐述了绿孔雀在国内外种群和分布区的变迁与现状、栖息地选择、与同域分布物种的种间关系, 分析了主要的致危因素, 同时为今后的研究方向和保护措施提出了建议。现有研究显示: (1)绿孔雀在国内的种群数量已不足500只, 在东南亚主要分布于中南半岛的部分区域及印度尼西亚的爪哇岛; (2)绿孔雀对水源地有很强的依赖, 倾向于利用远离居民点的区域, 并偏爱利用生境开阔、旱季落叶的热带季雨林, 喜爱与大型有蹄类混群; (3)大型猫科动物可能是绿孔雀潜在的天敌; (4)偷猎和栖息地丧失是绿孔雀面临的最主要的致危因素。综上, 我们建议尽快建立起中国绿孔雀监测网络, 评估野生绿孔雀的种群动态, 识别不同区域绿孔雀的受胁因素, 并结合分子生物学等技术开展保护遗传学研究。在保护实践上, 应在目前中国野生绿孔雀分布较为集中、原生栖息地保存较为完整的红河(元江)中上游河谷地带建立自然保护区, 同时加强巡护工作, 启动栖息地恢复工程, 并杜绝在野生绿孔雀栖息地附近的蓝孔雀(Pavo cristatus)养殖。

关键词: 绿孔雀, 保护生物学, 分布区, 栖息地选择, 致危因素, 保护管理

Abstract

Background & Aim The green peafowl (Pavo muticus) is listed as Class-I National Key Protected Wildlife in China and has irreplaceable value in China’s traditional culture. Historically, green peafowl were widely distributed across Southern China, but now its range is restricted to a few locations in Yunnan Province. There have been several studies that described the status and ecological traits of green peafowl in China, however, key information relating to population size and its adaptations to anthropogenic disturbance is still poorly understood. Furthermore, the green peafowl in Southeast Asia has also experienced drastic decline in both population size and distribution in the past 50 years. The studies on green peafowls’ biology, ecology, and conservation planning in Southeast Asia could inform related research and conservation strategies in China. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies related to green peafowls’ ecology and conservation research, and summarized green peafowls’ population dynamics, habitat use and interspecific interactions with sympatric species in China and Southeast Asia. Based on these results, we proposed suggestions for future research and conservation planning.
Review Results The wild population of green peafowl has less than 500 individuals in China, only distributed in Yunnan Province. In Southeast Asia, green peafowl is distributed in four strong-holds in Indo-China Peninsula and Java Island, in which the Eastern Plains landscape on the border of Cambodia and Vietnam holds the largest habitat and population. Studies conducted in Southeast Asia revealed that green peafowls had strong dependence on water resources and were associated with tropical dry forest, but were absent in tropical rain forest. They often herd with large ungulates such as banteng (Bos javanicus). Studies on habitat use demonstrated a significant variation in habitat use between dry and rainy season. Tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (P. pardus), Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) and civets (Viverridae spp.) were recognized as the green peafowl’s main predators. Poaching and habitat loss resulting from agriculture expansion and infrastructure construction are the main anthropogenic threats to green peafowls.
Perspectives We suggest that a long-term monitoring network combining camera trap and sign transect surveys are important for the conservation of green peafowl. Molecular biology can also help understand the conservation genetics of green peafowl. Most importantly, we strongly recommend that new protected areas along the river valleys of upper Red River where large habitat patches of tropical dry forest remain should be established. Patrols in green peafowl habitat should be enforced to protect against poaching. Furthermore, restoration of degenerated green peafowls’ habitats should be initiated. Finally, Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) farms should be prohibited in and around green peafowl habitat in order to prevent genetic contamination.

Key words: green peafowl, conservation biology, distribution area, habitat use, threatening factor, conservation management