生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1271-1278.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021287

• 生态系统原真性和完整性专题 •    下一篇

中国国家公园原真性与完整性概念及其评价框架

赵智聪1,2, 杨锐1,2,*()   

  1. 1.清华大学国家公园研究院, 北京 100084
    2.清华大学建筑学院, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-19 接受日期:2021-10-25 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨锐
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: yrui@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51978365);教育部人文社科项目(21YJCZH240)

The concept of national park authenticity and integrity in China and its evaluation framework

Zhicong Zhao1,2, Rui Yang1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute for National Parks, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
    2 School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
  • Received:2021-07-19 Accepted:2021-10-25 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Rui Yang

摘要:

国家公园保护管理的首要目的是有效保护国家重要自然生态系统原真性和完整性。我们提出了面向管理的中国国家公园原真性与完整性概念, 国家公园原真性是指国家公园内生态系统及构成国家公园价值或与国家公园价值紧密联系的自然与文化要素保持在原生状态, 强调“不受损”; 国家公园完整性是指国家公园具有足够面积和充分的组成要素, 以维持生态系统的结构、功能与过程, 维持自然区域的价值与特征, 强调“不缺失”。我们还提出了国家公园原真性和完整性评价框架, 从自然度、气候变化强度、传统文化及其载体的真实性、人类干扰程度、人与自然和谐关系的原真性5个方面评价国家公园原真性; 从生态系统组成完整性、生态系统结构完整性、生态系统功能完整性、景观组成要素完整性和文化景观的完整性5个层面评价国家公园完整性。此外, 我们还提出了国家公园原真性与完整性保护的建议, 包括重塑保护管理目标、更新保护管理理念与提升保护管理技术3个方面。国家公园原真性与完整性的讨论尚未成熟, 对评价指标设定、指标间的相互关系、保护管理技术等的研究均尚待深入。

关键词: 国家公园, 原真性, 完整性, 生态系统, 保护管理

Abstract

Aims The primary purpose of national park conservation and management is to effectively protect the authenticity and integrity of ecosystems, as well as natural and cultural resources of national importance. In this study, we aim to propose the concept of authenticity and integrity for national park management in China and establish a framework for authenticity and integrity evaluation based on the closed loop of value identification, value authenticity, integrity assessment, authenticity and integrity conservation, and the management strategy of monitoring and feedback.
Methods The primary research method is a review of previous literature on ecosystem integrity, ecosystem authenticity, and conservation management strategies of World Heritage sites, combining them with: practical experience; proposing concepts; systematically analyzing the connotations of the proposed definitions of authenticity and integrity; constructing an evaluation index system; proposing logical relationships among the indicators; and proposing conservation management recommendations based on the concepts and evaluation framework.
Results In this paper, we propose the authenticity and integrity of China's national parks. National park authenticity means that the ecosystems within a national park and the natural and cultural elements that constitute or are closely associated with national park values are maintained in their original state, with emphasis on “unimpaired”. National park integrity refers to the ability of national parks to maintain the structure, functions, and processes of ecosystems as well as the values and characteristics of natural areas with sufficient area and constituent elements, emphasizing “no deficiency”. The significance of the concept of management-oriented national park authenticity and integrity is reflected in three aspects: (1) the distinction between the concepts of authenticity and integrity is helpful for managers to clarify the goals of national park management, (2) using the requirements of authenticity and integrity to comprehensively cover the value system is conducive to the formation of a complete governance and management path of national parks, and (3) specifying the evaluation indexes of the authenticity and integrity of national parks is conducive to judging the effectiveness of national park management more effectively. We propose a framework for evaluating the authenticity and integrity of national parks. To evaluate the authenticity of national parks in five aspects: naturalness, intensity of climate change, authenticity of traditional culture and its carriers, degree of human interference, and authenticity of the harmonious relationship between human beings and nature. The integrity of national parks is evaluated in five dimensions: ecosystem composition integrity, ecosystem structural integrity, ecosystem functional integrity, landscape composition integrity, and cultural landscape integrity. We propose suggestions for the conservation and management of the authenticity and integrity of China's national parks, and those are presented in terms of reshaping objectives, updating concepts and enhancing technologies. The issues of authenticity and integrity of national parks have not yet been discussed in depth, and research on the setting of evaluation indexes, the interrelationship among evaluation indicators, and specific suggestions for conservation and management are yet to be further developed.
Conclusion This paper proposes a management-oriented concept of authenticity and integrity of Chinese national parks and a framework for authenticity and integrity evaluation. This provides a theoretical basis for establishing a complete management closure loop for Chinese national park management practices. The significance of the concept of authenticity and integrity, the index system of evaluation, and the management suggestions based on these are discussed throughout the paper.

Key words: national park, authenticity, integrity, ecosystem, management