生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 177-183.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020478

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农业生物多样性保护履约进展及对我国农业发展的启示

高磊1, 王蕾2, 胡飞龙2,*(), 杨礼荣1,*()   

  1. 1.生态环境部对外合作与交流中心, 北京 100035
    2.生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-25 接受日期:2021-02-09 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2021-02-12
  • 通讯作者: 胡飞龙,杨礼荣
  • 作者简介:yang.lirong@fecomee.org.cn
    * E-mail: hfl@nies.org;
  • 基金资助:
    全球环境基金建立和实施遗传资源及其相关传统知识获取与惠益分享的国家框架项目(00094671)

Recent progress of agro-biodiversity conservation and implications for agricultural development in China

Lei Gao1, Lei Wang2, Feilong Hu2,*(), Lirong Yang1,*()   

  1. 1 Foreign Environmental Cooperation Center, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2020-12-25 Accepted:2021-02-09 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2021-02-12
  • Contact: Feilong Hu,Lirong Yang

摘要:

农业生物多样性是《生物多样性公约》(以下简称《公约》)履约的核心议题之一, 对世界粮食安全、农业可持续发展以及实现碳中和具有重要实践意义。然而, 越来越多的研究表明, 由于人口的持续增长和饮食结构的根本性改变, 农业扩张已成为生物多样性丧失的主要驱动力之一。本文基于《公约》条款、第二次至第十四次缔约方大会相关决定、生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学与政策平台评估报告、第五版《全球生物多样性展望》(GBO-5)等内容, 系统梳理了《公约》谈判中农业生物多样性的履约进展和演变进程, 分析了农业生物多样性面临的严峻形势及存在问题。在此基础上, 从深入农业生物多样性相关指标研究、基于自然的解决方案、实现农业绿色可持续发展以及推动非国家利益相关方参与等层面, 就加强中国农业生物多样性保护工作提出建议, 以期有利于塑造中国良好对外形象, 也为维护世界农业稳定和粮食安全、推动《公约》第十五次缔约方大会(COP15)的顺利召开和成果达成奠定科学基础。

关键词: 2020年后全球生物多样性框架, 指标, COP决定, 利益相关方, 基于自然的解决方案

Abstract

Background: Agro-biodiversity is one of the most important issues under the Convention on Biological Diversity (hereinafter as the Convention), and it is of practical significance to global food security, sustainable development of agriculture and realization of carbon neutrality. However, research has shown that due to the continuous population growth and fundamental changes in dietary structure, continued expansion of agriculture has become one of the principal drivers of biodiversity loss.
Content: This paper systematically reviews the development and processes of the main negotiating topics of agro-biodiversity through a comprehensive analysis of the provisions of the Convention, the decisions and recommendations of previous Conferences of Parties (from COP2 to COP14), the assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 (GBO-5) published by the United Nations Environment Programme and Convention on Biological Diversity, the consultation on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, and the progress of convention performing on agro-biodiversity. In light of this review, we provide an analysis of the global challenges of agro-biodiversity and recommendations to meet those challenges.
Achievements: This paper describes a comprehensive overview of the decisions and recommendations from COP2 to COP14, and assesses the qualitative and quantitative indicators related to Goal 9 of the “Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework”. The topic of agricultural biodiversity is thoroughly analyzed across scales, from broad goals to concrete examples. These span the initial “genetic resources” to “protection and sustainable utilization”, and involve multi-dimensional topics, such as soil, pollination, trade, energy, nutrition and health. On the premise of ensuring national food security, this paper shows that China has actively participated in the implementation of agricultural biodiversity and achieved positive results.
Recommendation: In light of continued challenges in agro-biodiversity, the following reasonable suggestions are developed for the improvement of agricultural biodiversity in China. (1) Studying the agro-biodiversity indicators in more depth, taking into account the reality of global development and promoting the implementation required and optional solutions. (2) Taking advantage of nature-based solutions (NbS) to solve the problems of agro-biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in a coordinated way. (3) Keeping in step with the international performance trend, and building multilateral partnerships to achieve the green and sustainable agricultural development. (4) Encouraging the integration of agro-biodiversity protection into enterprise development plans to promote the participation of all stakeholders. These findings and suggestions will contribute to the maintenance of agricultural stability and food security, and lay a foundation for the success and outcome of the Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Convention (COP15).

Key words: targets of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, indicator, COP decision, stakeholders, Nature based Solution