生物多样性 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 21265.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021265

• 技术与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国农田土壤动物长期监测样地科学调查监测的实施方法

高梅香1,2, 刘启龙3, 朱家祺1, 赵博宇4, 杜嘉4, 吴东辉4,*()   

  1. 1.宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系, 浙江宁波 315211
    2.宁波市高等学校协同创新中心“宁波陆海国土空间利用与治理协同创新中心”, 浙江宁波 315211
    3.哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院, 哈尔滨 150025
    4.中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 长春 130102
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-03 接受日期:2021-09-29 出版日期:2022-01-20 发布日期:2022-01-29
  • 通讯作者: 吴东辉
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: wudonghui@iga.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技基础资源调查专项(2018FY100300)

Implementation protocol of scientific investigation and monitoring for permanent plots of agricultural soil animal in China

Meixiang Gao1,2, Qilong Liu3, Jiaqi Zhu1, Boyu Zhao4, Jia Du4, Donghui Wu4,*()   

  1. 1 Department of Geography and Spatial Information Techniques, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211
    2 Ningbo Universities Collaborative Innovation Center for Land and Marine Spatial Utilization and Governance Research at Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211
    3 Geographical Science College, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    4 Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102
  • Received:2021-07-03 Accepted:2021-09-29 Online:2022-01-20 Published:2022-01-29
  • Contact: Donghui Wu

摘要:

我国农田土壤动物面临严峻的多样性丧失问题, 建设监测样地并开展长期监测是解决该问题的重要途径, 但至今国内外仍缺乏农田土壤动物长期监测样地科学调查监测的实施方法。依据BCI 50 ha大型固定样地建设规范, 参照我国已建成的森林和农田土壤动物大型固定样地监测经验, 本文提出了农田土壤动物长期监测样地科学调查监测的实施方法。首先, 需要明确科学问题, 确定科学调查监测应遵守的基本原则。其次, 需要规范长期调查监测涉及的专业术语, 依据研究目的和实际情况选择地点和样地, 参照建设规范和农田特征建立农田土壤动物大型固定样地。第三, 以研究农田土壤动物多样性为核心, 揭示土壤动物在农田生态系统健康和功能中的作用, 有选择性地开展4类27项科学指标的长期监测工作, 要求按照统一的、规范化的工作流程开展野外调查和室内实验。最后, 要科学规范地完成标本的鉴定描述和保存保管, 研发体现农田土壤动物特征的数据库和管理信息系统。希望本文的研究结果能推动我国乃至世界范围的规范化样地建设和标准化网络监测, 为我国农田土壤动物评估与保护提供长期可靠的数据支撑。

关键词: 农田生态系统, 土壤动物多样性, 土壤动物监测指标, 土壤动物监测方法, 生物多样性保护和利用

Abstract

Aims: The soil ecosystem includes a lot of animals with representatives from almost all major taxa of terrestrial animals and may stand for one quarter of all currently described biodiversity. Nevertheless, biodiversity loss of soil animals has become a serious problem for agricultural ecosystems globally, especially in China. Though many solutions have been proposed, this problem has not been effectively tackled. Constructing permanent plots and monitoring them long-term has been regarded as an important and effective method for solving the challenge of soil animal biodiversity loss. However, we still know little about the implementation protocol of scientific investigation and monitoring of a permanent plot of agricultural soil animals, until now.

Methods: We propose the implementation protocol for scientific investigation and monitoring of permanent plots of agricultural soil animals in this study. The plot establishment and field investigation design are conducted according to the field protocol of the 50-ha Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. The field investigation and long-term monitoring are carried out according to prior research of forest and farmland utilizing large permanent plots of soil animal in China.

Results: First, we must confirm which scientific questions need to be solved and decide the basic principles to be observed for scientific investigation and monitoring in permanent plots of agricultural soil animals. Eighteen scientific questions have been proposed from a basic theory and practical application standpoint, and four basic principles have been proposed: integrating the needs and ideas of scientific research and agricultural practice, scientific setting and selecting monitoring indices, concerning spatio-temporal heterogeneity and detection probability of monitoring indices, and emphasizing the effects of agricultural productions and human activities. Second, we need to standardize the terminology for long-term investigation and monitoring, such as site, plot, square, sample and specimen. Sites and plots should be selected according to research objectives and study area, and priority should be given to sites that are representative of typical agricultural activities and regional climatic characteristics. Then, the large permanent plot of agricultural soil animal can be established in terms of BCI 50-ha field protocols. Third, focusing on soil animal biodiversity and its effects on agricultural ecosystem health and function, we need to carry out long-term monitoring for four-class and twenty-seven-item scientific indices. Moreover, the field investigation and laboratory experiment should be performed based on a unified and standardized workflow. For field investigation, the working processes include drawing detailed sampling point map, training all investigators, looking for and locating the permanent plot of agricultural soil animals in the field using GPS or other instruments, labeling the sampling points in the permanent plot, and collecting samples. For laboratory experiment, different extracting methods for soil animals should be used according to different taxa characteristics and research objectives. Finally, we need to identify, describe, and preserve specimens scientifically. Researching and developing database and management information system that encompass the characteristics of soil animal are recommended. This process will help with data invoking, checking, analyzing, and mining later.

Conclusion: This study systematically puts forward the implementation protocol of scientific investigation and long-term monitoring of permanent plots of agricultural soil animals. The implementation protocol can be widely applied to almost agricultural ecosystems in China and can be used effectively to investigate and monitor all taxa of soil animals. The results of this study will promote standardized plot construction and network monitoring in China, and globally, as well as provide reliable long-term scientific data support for the assessment and protection of agricultural soil animals in China.

Key words: agriculture ecosystem, soil animal biodiversity, monitoring index of soil animal, monitoring method of soil animal, biodiversity conservation and utilization