生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (6): 780-789.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020401

• 生态系统多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原国家公园群游憩可持续性管理评估指标体系

张丛林1, 褚梦真2, 张慧智3, 乔海娟4, 黄宝荣1,*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院, 北京 100190
    2.中国人民大学环境学院, 北京 100872
    3.北京市农林科学院, 北京 100097
    4.南京水利科学研究院水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室, 南京 210029
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-14 接受日期:2021-02-02 出版日期:2021-06-20 发布日期:2021-05-28
  • 通讯作者: 黄宝荣
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: huangbaorong@casisd.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(71503245)

Evaluation indicator system for the recreational sustainability management of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster

Conglin Zhang1, Mengzhen Chu2, Huizhi Zhang3, Haijuan Qiao4, Baorong Huang1,*()   

  1. 1 Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
    2 School of Environment & Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872
    3 Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097
    4 State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029
  • Received:2020-10-14 Accepted:2021-02-02 Online:2021-06-20 Published:2021-05-28
  • Contact: Baorong Huang

摘要:

建立游憩可持续性管理评估指标体系, 对于引导青藏高原国家公园群科学规划与建设、推行游憩可持续性管理、规范市场主体和访客的行为、保护当地重要而脆弱的生态环境极为重要。本研究在对国家公园群潜在建设区科学考察的基础上, 以需求为导向, 分析国家公园群对游憩可持续性管理评估指标的需求; 以全球共识为导向, 分析《全球可持续旅游目的地标准》在国家公园群的适用性; 以经验为导向, 梳理世界主要国家国家公园群游憩可持续性的管理重点; 在此基础上, 建立了青藏高原国家公园群游憩可持续性管理评估指标体系。所建立的指标体系包括制度建设、经济、社会、文化、生态环境5个一级指标, 15个二级指标, 34个三级指标。所提出的评估指标体系具有区域特色, 以及代表性、系统性与务实性特征。国家公园群游憩可持续性管理评估指标体系的应用需要得到监测、统计体系的有力支撑, 而国家公园群潜在建设区相关领域基础普遍薄弱, 为了更好地应用游憩可持续性管理评估指标体系, 建议完善监测、统计体系。一方面, 需要优先加强对各国家公园潜在建设区访客数量、珍稀特有物种、水环境质量、植被覆盖率、文化遗产原真性和完好度等方面的监测工作; 另一方面, 需要优先加强对各国家公园潜在建设区访客属性、访客满意度、当地社区满意度、游憩对当地经济社会发展的贡献、游憩废弃物处理率等方面的统计工作。

关键词: 青藏高原, 国家公园群, 游憩, 可持续性, 评估, 指标

Abstract

Aims: The establishment of an evaluation indicator system of recreational sustainability management is extremely important for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster to guide scientific planning and construction, promote recreational sustainability management, regulate the behaviors of market subjects and visitors, and protect the important and fragile ecological environment.

Methods: Based on scientific investigation of the potential construction area of national park cluster, taking demands as orientation, the demand of national park cluster for recreational sustainability management evaluation indicator is analyzed. Guided by global consensus, the applicability of Global Sustainability Tourism Criteria for Destinations in national park cluster is discussed. Guided by experience, the management emphases of recreational sustainability of national parks in major countries is summarized.

Results: The recreational sustainability management evaluation indicator system for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster has been established, including five first-level indicators of system construction, economy, society, culture and ecological environment, 15 second-level indicators and 34 third-level indicators.

Conclusion & suggestions: The recreational sustainability management evaluation indicator system for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster has regional, representative, systematic and pragmatic characteristics. The application of the Recreational Sustainability Management Evaluation Indicator System for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster needs to be supported by monitoring and statistical systems. However, the foundation of these two fields in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster is relatively weak. In order to apply the evaluation indicator system of recreational sustainability management, it is suggested to improve related monitoring and statistics systems. On the one hand, priority should be given to monitoring number of visitors, rare and endemic species, water environment quality, vegetation coverage, authenticity, and integrity of cultural heritage in the national park cluster potential construction area. On the other hand, it is necessary to give priority to strengthen the statistical work on the visitor attributes, visitors' satisfaction, local community satisfaction, the contribution of recreation to local economic and social development, and the waste disposal rate of recreation.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, national park cluster, recreation, sustainability, evaluation, indicator