生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 231-237.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021002

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主要利益相关方在履行《名古屋议定书》中的关系与义务

张渊媛1,2, 钟震宇1,2, 程志斌1,2, 吕凤春3, 蔡譞3, 白加德1,2,*()   

  1. 1.北京生物多样性保护研究中心, 北京 100076
    2.北京麋鹿生态实验中心, 北京 100076
    3.中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-04 接受日期:2021-01-28 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2021-02-08
  • 通讯作者: 白加德
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: baijiade234@aliyun.com

Correlations among stakeholders and their respective obligations in implementing the Nagoya Protocol

Yuanyuan Zhang1,2, Zhenyu Zhong1,2, Zhibin Cheng1,2, Fengchun Lü3, Xuan Cai3, Jiade Bai1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Beijing Biodiversity Conservation Research Center, Beijing 100076
    2 Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center, Beijing 100076
    3 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment/Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2021-01-04 Accepted:2021-01-28 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2021-02-08
  • Contact: Jiade Bai

摘要:

生物遗传资源及其相关传统知识的获取与惠益分享(Access and Benefit Sharing, ABS)涉及三个主要利益相关方, 即提供方、使用方和监管方。在我国履行《名古屋议定书》的过程中, 需深刻理解《名古屋议定书》中对于提供方、使用方和监管方的相关规定, 分析三方关系内涵及各自义务, 对有效履行《名古屋议定书》具有重要意义。本文提出, 为促进公平和公正的惠益分享, 提供方有义务明确生物遗传资源的原产地并保护和可持续利用原产的生物遗传资源, 确定生物遗传资源的原始持有社区和相关传统知识的原始持有人(或地方社区); 通过调查、登记和编目, 分析遗传资源的起源、形成及利用历史, 建立当地生物遗传资源及相关传统知识的档案; 通过ABS知识培训, 提高参与“获取与惠益分享”事务的能力, 特别是与使用方谈判ABS协议的能力。使用方有义务履行国际公约规定的“事先知情同意”和“共同商定条件”原则, 在征得土著和地方社区的事先知情同意和实质性参与下, 与土著和地方社区经共同商定条件, 签订体现公平惠益分享的ABS协议; 使用方要尊重土著和地方社区对保护和提供生物遗传资源的贡献, 制定行为守则, 履行社会责任; 还要在论文发表及专利申请时披露所使用遗传资源及相关传统知识的来源和原产地。监管方有责任建立完善的ABS政策和法规体系; 建立ABS信息交换机制, 发布ABS相关信息; 规定提交获取申请所要求的材料, 提供“ABS协议”的模本, 并审查和批准“ABS协议”, 签发“合法来源证书”; 并通过建立检查点, 监督和监测ABS协议的履行。

关键词: 名古屋议定书, 获取与惠益分享, 利益相关方

Abstract

Background: The process of Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) mainly concerns three stakeholders, namely, providers, users and administrators. It is important to understand in-depth relevant provisions regarding these three groups and administrators of the Nagoya Protocol (NP) under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the correlations among three stakeholders and their respective responsibilities in implementing the NP in China.
Aim: This article examines the correlations among providers, users and administrators during the process of Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS), to understand their respective obligations in implementing the NP on ABS, so as to provide technical support in realization of benefit sharing in a fair and equitable manner.
Perspectives & Suggestions: Providers are obliged to identify the source or origin of biological genetic resources, and put in efforts to protect such resources; identify the original holders (or local communities) of genetic resources and the holders of associated traditional knowledge: develop a databank of local biological genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, by survey, registration and catalogue; analyze the origins of genetic resources, development and history of utilization; improve the capabilities of handling ABS issues, especially the ability of negotiating with users on ABS agreements, through ABS training. Users are obliged to follow the principles of “Prior Informed Consent (PIC)” and “Mutually Agreed Terms (MAT)” required by the CBD and the NP. After obtaining PIC and MAT from Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs), they shall sign ABS agreements with them, which reflect fairness and equity; Users shall respect the contributions of ILCs in conserving and providing biological genetic resources, develop guiding rules in practicing ABS, fulfilling social responsibility. They also need to disclose the source and provenance of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge (ATK) in applying for patent. Administrators, in the process of establishing ABS, are responsible for developing a sound ABS policy and legal system; developing an ABS clearing house system and releasing relevant information; issuing standards of ABS applications and providing a model “ABS agreement”; reviewing and approving “ABS agreements”, and issuing “Certificate of legally sourced genetic resources (GRs)”; the administrators also need to supervise and monitor the implementation of those ABS agreements.

Key words: Nagoya Protocol, Access and Benefit Sharing, stakeholders