生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 259-268.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020415

• • 上一篇    

2020年后生物多样性保护需要建立新的资金机制

魏伟*(), 申小莉, 刘忆南   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-02 接受日期:2020-12-25 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2021-02-02
  • 通讯作者: 魏伟
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: weiwei@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国环境与发展国际合作委员会2020年后生物多样性保护专题政策项目;中国科学院战略研究院2020年后全球生物多样性保护议程及资金机制课题

Toward developing a new funding mechanism to support post-2020 biodiversity conservation

Wei Wei*(), Xiaoli Shen, Yinan Liu   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2020-11-02 Accepted:2020-12-25 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2021-02-02
  • Contact: Wei Wei

摘要:

《生物多样性公约》第十五次缔约方大会(COP15)将评估全球生物多样性保护已有进展, 审议并通过“2020年后全球生物多样性框架”, 后者是实现2050愿景“与自然和谐相处”的关键, 有助于达成联合国可持续发展的目标。生物多样性资金机制现在是将来也是实施全球生物多样性保护行动计划的重要保证。根据《生物多样性公约》信息交换所的数据, 目前各缔约方每年对本国生物多样性保护的投资额度占其当年国内生产总值(GDP)的比例比较小。中国作为发展中国家, 2015年时生物多样性保护资金投入占GDP比例为0.255%, 在世界各国中处于比较高的水平。近年中国对生物多样性保护的投入连年增加, 2019年时已经达约0.6%。有研究表明, 目前全球每年生物多样性保护资金的缺口至少500亿美元, 未来十年还有更大的资金缺口, 而且当前已有生物多样性资金渠道比较单一, 并存在一些短板, 远远不能满足生物多样性保护行动的要求, 急需建立新的资金机制, 调动更多资源, 推动2030年生物多样性保护任务和目标的实现。《生物多样性公约》的资金机制可以与包括《联合国气候变化框架公约》在内的其他相关环境公约协同增效, 比如基于自然的解决方案将生物多样性保护与气候变化减缓等环境目标联系起来。中国作为COP15的东道国, 有积极协调磋商的责任, 力求在大会上推动形成一个新的资金机制, 即全球生物多样性保护基金, 为“2020年后全球生物多样性框架”的实施保驾护航。新的生物多样性保护资金机制将独立于现有的生物多样性保护资金机制, 具有多样化投资渠道并引入绩效评估机制, 将经费与任务目标关联, 提高资金的使用效率, 支持发展中国家的生物多样性保护行动。

关键词: 2020年后全球生物多样性框架, 资金机制, 全球生物多样性新基金, 基于自然的解决方案

Abstract

Background: The 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will review the achievement and delivery of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and consider adopting the final draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework with potential amendments. The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework will be an important milestone toward the realization of the 2050 vision “living in harmony with nature” and achieving the sustainable development goals of the United Nations.
Progress: It is agreed that the financial mechanism for supporting biodiversity conservation is and will continue to be the key to implementing the global biodiversity action plan. However, the current funding gap for biodiversity conservation and restoration to reverse biodiversity loss by 2030 is estimated to be at least 50 billion US dollars per year, with an even larger financial gap of more than half a trillion US dollars per year expected in the coming decade. According to the data submitted to the Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM) of the CBD, parties’ direct investment for domestic biodiversity conservation only accounts for a very small fraction of their total gross domestic product (GDP). In 2015, China spent 0.255% of its total GDP in biodiversity conservation, and this percentage was relatively high compared to other countries. As a developing country, China has significantly increased its biodiversity investment in recent years, and in 2019 this amount reached approximately 0.6% of its GDP. The existing biodiversity funding channel is relatively low on diversity, which will make fulfilling biodiversity conservation goals quite challenging. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish a new funding mechanism to assist in the achievement of the post-2020 mission and goals by 2030. It has been suggested that the Convention on Biological Diversity can learn from the financial mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (e.g. green climate fund), and synergize with other relevant environmental conventions, in particular, through nature-based solutions.
Perspective: As the host country of COP15, China has the responsibility and ability to facilitate the negotiation for a new funding mechanism at the conference in order to promote the implementation of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. This new biodiversity funding mechanism shall be independent of the existing financial mechanisms with much diverse investment channels, introduce achievement grading mechanisms and link funding to concrete mission, goal and responsibility aiming to improve the efficiency of fund use, and support biodiversity activities in developing countries.

Key words: the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, financial mechanism, new global biodiversity fund, nature-based solutions