生物多样性

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红外相机陷阱法调查贡嘎山国家级自然保护区鸟兽多样性

乔江1,2,贾国清3,周华明3,龚林4,蒋勇3,肖能文5,高晓奇5,温安祥2*,王杰1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院成都生物研究所,山地生态恢复与生物资源利用院重点实验室 成都 610041)

    2 (四川农业大学生命科学学院 雅安 625014)

    3(四川贡嘎山国家级自然保护区管理局 康定 626001)

    4(四川省甘孜州道孚国有林保护管理局 道孚 626499) 5(中国环境科学研究院 北京 100012)

  • 收稿日期:2020-10-11 修回日期:2021-01-24 出版日期:2021-07-20 发布日期:2021-03-13
  • 通讯作者: 王杰

Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China

Jiang Qiao1,2, Guoqing Jia3, Huaming Zhou3, Lin Gong4, Yong Jiang3, Nengwen Xiao5, Xiaoqi Gao5, Anxiang Wen2*, Jie Wang1*   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041

    2 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an 625014

    3 Sichuan Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve, Kangding 626000

    4 Sichuan Ganzi Daofu National Forest Management Bureau, Daofu 626499

    5 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012



  • Received:2020-10-11 Revised:2021-01-24 Online:2021-07-20 Published:2021-03-13
  • Contact: Jie Wang

摘要: 2011至2016年利用红外相机对四川贡嘎山国家级自然保护区的大中型兽类和地面活动鸟类开展调查。安放位点82个,红外相机累计工作8,824天,获得野生兽类独立有效照片2,880张,鸟类1,142张,牲畜210张。鉴定出兽类29种,分属于6目14科;鸟类66种,分属于8目20科。国家I级和II级重点保护野生动物分别为10种和19种。被《中国脊椎动物红色名录》评估为“极危(CR)”、“濒危(EN)”和“易危(VU)”的物种分别为3、4和10种。相对多度指数(relative abundance index, RAI)前三的兽类是岩羊(Pseudois nayaur, RAI=77.63)、毛冠鹿(Elaphodus cephalophus, 62.22)和水鹿(Rusa unicolor, 55.08)。相对多度指数前三的鸟类是藏雪鸡(Tetraogallus tibetanus, RAI=20.17)、血雉(Ithaginis cruentus, 16.66)和大噪鹛(Garrulax maximus, 8.05)。红喉歌鸲(Luscinia calliope)和红腹红尾鸲(Phoenicurus erythrogastrus)是保护区新记录。本研究为贡嘎山保护区的大中型兽类和鸟类的编目和保护提供重要依据。

关键词: 贡嘎山自然保护区, 红外相机, 物种编目, 大中型兽类, 雉类

Abstract

Aim: We aim to conduct species inventories of medium-sized and large mammals and ground-dwelling birds in the Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve.

Methods: During 2011–2016, infrared camera traps were placed mainly in the western slope of the mountain range, where harbors the most abundant flagship animal species and has the least anthropic disturbance. Each two cameras had the least straight distance of 500 m. Relative abundance index was used to evaluate the comparative population size of different species, and specaccum function in Vegan package (R language) was used to analysis the increasing trend of detected species with camera working days.

Results: From the 4,093 independent photographs during 8,006 camera-days at 78 trapping sites, we identified 29 mammal and 66 bird species, which belonged to 14 families of 6 orders of mammals and 20 families of 8 orders of birds, respectively. Altogether 10 and 25 species are listed as the national first-class and second-class protected wild animals, respectively. Three, four, and ten species are listed, respectively, as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), and Vulnerable (VU) in the Red List of China’s Vertebrates. According to the relative abundance index, the three most detected mammal species were the Blue-sheep Pseudois nayaur (77.44), Tufted deer Elaphodus cephalophus (67.32), and sambar Rusa unicolor (60.58); the three most detected avian species were the Tibetan snowcock Tetraogallus tibetanus (21.86), Blood pheasant Ithaginis cruentus (17.49), and Giant laughingthrush Garrulax maximus (8.87). Siberian rubythroat Luscinia calliope and White-winged redstart Phoenicurus erythrogastrus were recorded for the first time in the nature reserve.

Conclusions: Our inventory provided a basis for the wildlife conservation at the Gongga Mountain Nature Reserve. Continuous monitoring is required on the remaining apex predators and the threatened ungulate herbivores, including snow leopard Panthera uncia, leopard P. pardus, grey wolf Canis lupus, forest musk deer Moschus berezovskii, alpine musk deer M. chrysogaster, and sambar Rusa unicolor.

Key words: Gongga Mountain Nature Reserve, camera trapping, species inventory, large and medium-sized mammals, pheasants