生物多样性

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蜘蛛飞航研究进展

武鹏峰1  崔淑艳1  Abid Ali 1,2  郑  国1*   

  1. 1 (沈阳师范大学生命科学学院,沈阳 110034) 2 (Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan)

  • 收稿日期:2020-07-27 修回日期:2020-10-12 出版日期:2020-11-11 发布日期:2020-11-11
  • 通讯作者: 郑国

Advances in spider ballooning research

Pengfeng Wu1, Shuyan Cui1, Ali Abid1,2,Guo Zheng1*   

  1. 1 College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 2 Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan

  • Received:2020-07-27 Revised:2020-10-12 Online:2020-11-11 Published:2020-11-11
  • Contact: Guo Zheng

摘要: 种群扩散能够避免在同一栖息地中的资源竞争和同类相残,促进基因流动,具有重要的进化和生态意义。相比于昆虫的迁飞行为,某些不具翅的节肢动物也能够借助细丝的作用而实现远距离扩散,即飞航。蜘蛛为肉食性动物,是陆地生态系统的重要组成部分,在生态系统中防控害虫方面作用显著。飞航是蜘蛛的一种重要扩散方式,在其物种形成、生态位分化及害虫防控等方面具有重要意义,但有关其飞航扩散的报道较少。本文回顾了蜘蛛飞航的研究历程,大致可分为三个阶段;总结了其研究现状,包括飞航蜘蛛的优势类群及特征、飞航过程中三个环节(即起飞-空中航行-降落)及影响因子、两种飞航机制及四种相关模型、飞航蜘蛛采集和研究方法。同时基于过往研究,指明了未来蜘蛛飞航研究的重点领域:加强飞航蜘蛛类群鉴定工作,继续深度挖掘飞航数据与环境因子间关系,探索蜘蛛飞航的全过程(包括起飞、空中航行和降落),更加明确蜘蛛飞航作为一种扩散方式的意义。本综述将为蜘蛛飞航的知识普及、资源保护和利用等方面提供重要参考。

关键词: 节肢动物, 扩散, 栖息地, 空气对流, 大气电势梯度

Abstract: Population dispersal can avoid resource competition and cannibalism in the same habitat, and ensure gene flow, which has important evolutionary and ecological significance. Compared with the migration behavior of insects, some wingless arthropods can also achieve long-distance dispersal through role of their filaments (that is called ballooning). Spiders as carnivorous animals are important parts in terrestrial ecosystems and can play a significant role in pest control in ecosystems. Ballooning is one of the most important way for dispersal of spiders and would be of great importance in species formation, niche differentiation and pest control, but their dispersal is less concerned. In this study, we reviewed the research history of spider ballooning (which can be categorized into three periods) and summarized the current research progress that had been made including the dominant groups and characteristics, three stages of ballooning course (namely take-off, flight, and setting) and influencing factors, two prevalent mechanism theories and four related models, collection and other research methods. Keeping in view the reported past studies, in order to exclusively understand the significance of ballooning as a way of population dispersal, the following research emphases are putting forward to strengthen the identification of ballooning spiders, to highlight advances in the study of the relationship between ballooning data and environmental factors, to explore the whole process of spider ballooning (e.g., take-off, flight and setting). Therefore, outcome of this work will serve as an important reference for knowledge popularization, resource protection and utilization of ballooning.

Key words: arthropod, dispersal, habitat, aerodynamic convection, atmospheric potential gradient