生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 467-476.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020214

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同放牧强度对赛罕乌拉草原蜘蛛多样性的影响

张宇1, 王露雨1, 向昌林2, 段美春3,*(), 张志升1,*()   

  1. 1 西南大学生命科学学院三峡库区生态环境教育部重点实验室, 重庆 400715
    2 赛罕乌拉国家级自然保护区管理局, 内蒙古赤峰 025150
    3 西南大学农学与生物科技学院, 重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-26 接受日期:2020-12-09 出版日期:2021-04-20 发布日期:2021-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 段美春,张志升
  • 作者简介:zhangzs327@qq.com
    * E-mail: duanmc@swu.edu.cn;
    第一联系人:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    科技部基础调查专项(2018FY100305);国家自然科学基金(31672278);重庆市研究生科研创新项目(CYS20104)

Effects of different grazing intensities on spider diversity in Saihanwula Grassland

Yu Zhang1, Luyu Wang1, Changlin Xiang2, Meichun Duan3,*(), Zhisheng Zhang1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715
    2 Saihanwula National Nature Reserve Administration, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia 025150
    3 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715
  • Received:2020-05-26 Accepted:2020-12-09 Online:2021-04-20 Published:2021-04-20
  • Contact: Meichun Duan,Zhisheng Zhang
  • About author:First author contact:# Co-first authors

摘要:

蜘蛛作为草原生态系统中的主要消费者, 对维系草原生物多样性和生态系统功能具有重大意义。放牧是人类利用草原最普遍的方式, 了解放牧对蜘蛛多样性的影响具有重要生态学意义。本研究调查了内蒙古赛罕乌拉草原上5个不同放牧强度样地中的蜘蛛多样性, 通过单因素方差分析(one-way analysis of variance)比较各样地中的蜘蛛多样性, 非度量多维标度分析(non-metric multidimensional scale, NMDS)和相似性分析(analysis of similarities, ANOSIM)比较各样地间的蜘蛛物种组成相似性, 再结合相关性分析探讨了植被高度对蜘蛛多样性的影响。结果表明: 重度放牧强度样地的蜘蛛多样性显著低于其他未放牧及轻度放牧样地; 具体到常见科上, 放牧强度对织网型的园蛛物种数和个体数影响显著, 而对游猎型的狼蛛、跳蛛却不明显; 织网型蜘蛛主要受植被结构影响, 而游猎型蜘蛛更可能受潜在猎物可得性的影响。NMDS分析表明不同放牧强度下, 蜘蛛类群的物种组成呈现明显的梯度变化, 放牧强度越低, 物种组成和未放牧样地越相近。相关性分析表明草原植被高度与蜘蛛多样性总体上呈正相关关系, 即植被高度越高, 蜘蛛多样性越高。其中依靠植物构建蛛网的园蛛科和在植物上层伏击猎物的蟹蛛科、逍遥蛛科等与植被高度显著相关。这说明植物资源及其空间异质性可能对草原蜘蛛多样性起着主导作用。因此, 降低放牧强度有助于保护草原蜘蛛群落的多样性, 特别有利于织网型蜘蛛。

关键词: 草原生态系统, 放牧强度, 织网型蜘蛛, 游猎型蜘蛛, 功能群

Abstract

Aims: As the main consumers of grassland ecosystem, spiders are of great significance to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function in grasslands. Grazing is the most common way for humans to exploit grasslands, so it is ecologically important to understand the effects of grazing on the spider diversity. In this study, we selected five sample plots that varied in their grazing intensity in the Saihanwula Grassland in Inner Mongolia.

Methods: We analyzed differences in spider diversity and species composition among these five sample sites using one-way analysis of variance tests and non-metric multidimensional scale analysis (NMDS) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), respectively. We also evaluated the effect of vegetation height on spider biodiversity using a correlation analysis.

Results: Spider biodiversity in heavily grazed sites is significantly lower than in non-grazed and lightly grazed sites. Grazing intensity also had a significant effect on spider richness and the abundance of garden spiders, but not on the number of wolf and jumping spiders. Web-building spiders were mainly affected by vegetation structure, while hunting spiders were more likely to be affected by potential prey availability. NMDS analysis revealed that species composition significantly varied across sites of different grazing intensities. Sites with lower grazing intensities had more similar composition to non-grazed sites than sites that were heavily grazed. The correlation analysis showed that the height of grassland vegetation was positively related to spider biodiversity. Spiders from the family Araneidae (which build webs on plants), Thomisidae and Philodromidae (which ambush prey on the upper layer of plants) were highly correlated with vegetation height.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that available resources and spatial heterogeneity of habitat could play a leading role in supporting high grassland spider diversity. Therefore, reducing grazing intensity can contribute to the maintenance of grassland spider diversity community composition, especially for web-building spiders that depend on the vegetation structure provided by intact grasslands.

Key words: grassland ecosystem, grazing intensity, web-building spiders, hunting spiders, functional group, biodiversity