生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (2): 228-236.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015208

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化学除草剂对农田生态系统野生植物多样性的影响

齐月1,2, 李俊生2,,A;*(), 闫冰1,2, 邓贞贞2, 付刚2   

  1. 1 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
    2 中国环境科学研究院环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012;
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-21 接受日期:2015-10-08 出版日期:2016-02-20 发布日期:2016-03-03
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生
  • 基金资助:
    国家转基因生物新品种培育科技重大专项(2014ZX08015005-002)

Impact of herbicides on wild plant diversity in agro-ecosystems: a review

Yue Qi1,2, Junsheng Li2,*(), Bing Yan1,2, Zhenzhen Deng2, Gang Fu2   

  1. 1 College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2015-07-21 Accepted:2015-10-08 Online:2016-02-20 Published:2016-03-03
  • Contact: Li Junsheng

摘要:

农田生物多样性是全球生物多样性的重要组成部分, 除草剂的大量施用对其产生了严重影响。本文综述了化学除草剂对农田生态系统中野生植物多样性的影响, 并分析归纳了其影响机制。除草剂的施用会使敏感植物减少, 抗药性植物增多, 从而改变农田生态系统中的野生植物物种组成, 并使其趋同化, 降低遗传多样性和物种多样性, 以致植物功能群单一化, 群落稳定性下降。除草剂的主要影响机制是杀死植物或改变其生长代谢、抗性、繁殖等, 改变生境, 并与人为因素、环境因素等产生协同影响。不同种类的除草剂影响程度不同, 且不同物种间、不同群落间的响应也存在差异。我国化学除草剂使用量持续增长, 应加强除草剂对野生植物多样性的影响及其机制研究, 重视除草剂使用历史记录和野生植物的长期监测, 以及除草剂使用规范和相关政策法律研究, 更好地保护我国农田生态系统中的生物多样性。

关键词: 化学除草剂, 农田生态系统, 遗传多样性, 物种多样性, 植物功能群, 影响机制

Abstract:

Plant diversity in agro-ecosystems is an important component of global biodiversity. However, wild plant diversity in agro-ecosystems is influenced by herbicide use. We reviewed recent studies on the impacts of herbicides on wild plant diversity in agro-ecosystems and the underlying mechanisms. It is found that herbicide application (i) decreases the number of plants that are sensitive to herbicides; (ii) increases the number of plants that are resistant to herbicides; (iii) changes species composition; and (iv) decreases genetic diversity and species diversity of wild plants in agro-ecosystems. Herbicide impacts simplify plant functional groups and hence add instability to communities. The influencing mechanism is that herbicides kill plants or change plant metabolism, resistance, reproduction and the habitat of plants. Furthermore, herbicides, human activities, and environmental factors have interactions. The impacts of herbicides on plants are plant-specific and the responses of various species or communities to the herbicides are also different. At present, the use of herbicides is increasing rapidly in agricultural production in China. We therefore suggest that more studies are needed on the impact of herbicides on wild plants and the underlying mechanisms, and the historical performances of herbicides use should be studied using long-term monitoring of wild plant changes carried out in China’s agro-ecosystems. Studies on policies and laws related to the use of herbicides also need to be strengthened, whicn can help to improve conservation of biodiversity in agro-ecosystem of China.

Key words: herbicide, agro-ecosystem, genetic diversity, species diversity, plant functional groups, influencing mechanism