生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 639-650.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12134

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中国草地生物多样性监测网络的指标体系及实施方案

万宏伟, 潘庆民, 白永飞*()   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-02 接受日期:2013-11-20 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2013-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 白永飞
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目“中国生物多样性监测与变化机理研究(KSCX2-EW-Z-5)”;国家自然科学基金重点项目“蒙古高原草原生物多样性的格局与维持机制研究: 控制实验与野外调查相整合的多尺度途径(31030013)”

China grassland biodiversity monitoring network: indicators and implementation plan

Hongwei Wan, Qingmin Pan, Yongfei Bai*()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2013-06-02 Accepted:2013-11-20 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2013-12-02
  • Contact: Bai Yongfei

摘要:

建立生物多样性监测网络是生物多样性保护和研究的基础, 在一些发达国家相关的工作已经比较完善, 我国森林生物多样性监测的网络也已经初具规模(http://www.cfbiodiv.org/), 而国家尺度上的草地生物多样性监测网络尚未建设。我国草地面积广, 野生动植物资源丰富, 对环境因子变化响应敏感且受人类活动干扰的影响较为强烈。建立国家尺度上的草地生物多样性监测网络, 对于揭示我国草地生物多样性资源现状, 研究其变化规律与机制, 监督和指导保护实践至关重要。作者在借鉴国外监测指标体系的基础上, 结合我国的草地资源和利用现状, 从整合政策和科学两方面的需求, 并考虑监测指标遴选及其空间异质性和检出概率, 结合拟探讨的具体科学问题, 提出了我国草地生物多样性监测与研究网络的指标体系和具体监测方案。该方案以草地植物多样性研究为核心, 兼顾草地生态系统健康和功能, 包含3类27项82个具体指标, 并给出了监测样地选取与设置的方案, 以及每个指标的野外监测方法与数据获取途径。最后, 作者以2012年在内蒙古的一个调查样地为例, 简要阐述了野外工作流程和注意事项, 并展示了部分野外调查结果。

关键词: 草原生态系统, 生物多样性, 监测网络, 指标体系, 监测方法

Abstract

A biodiversity monitoring network is fundamental to biodiversity research and successful conservation practice. Many developed countries have established national or even continental scale biodiversity monitoring networks, covering a wide range of natural and semi-natural ecosystems. In China, the only biodiversity monitoring network that currently exists is the Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio, http://www.cfbiodiv.org/), which was founded in 2004. Grassland ecosystems, which cover 41.7% of the total land area of China, are most sensitive to environmental changes and have long been subject to overgrazing and other human disturbances, resulting in widespread deterioration of biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is essential, therefore, to establish a Chinese grassland biodiversity monitoring network to investigate the current status of Chinese grasslands, the pressure and/or drivers of changes in biodiversity, and to provide guidance on their restoration and conservation practices. Based on the successful experiences of other international biodiversity monitoring networks and the natural grassland conditions in China, we propose a national grassland biodiversity monitoring and research network, which includes the overarching objectives and scientific questions, indicators, methodology issues, and a case study in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

Key words: grassland ecosystem, biodiversity monitoring and research network, indicators, methodology