生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 0-0.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020171

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如何在北京充分实现受胁鸟类栖息地保护?

黄越1,顾燚芸2,阳文锐3,闻丞2,4   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学园艺学院
    2. 北京镜朗生态科技有限公司
    3. 北京市城市规划设计研究院
    4. 北京大学
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-26 修回日期:2020-09-01 出版日期:2021-01-20 发布日期:2020-11-03
  • 通讯作者: 闻丞

How to well preserve the irreplaceable habitats for those threatened birds in Beijing?

Yue Huang1,Yiyun Gu2,Wenrui Yang3,Cheng Wen2,4   

  1. 1. College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University
    2. Beijing Jinglang Ecological Technology Ltd.
    3. Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design
    4. School of Life Sciences, Peking University
  • Received:2020-04-26 Revised:2020-09-01 Online:2021-01-20 Published:2020-11-03
  • Contact: Cheng Wen

摘要: 如何实现有效的生物多样性保护,关键在于生物多样性丰富的人口密集区。北京人口密集且生物多样性丰富,存在3类具有生态保护功能的区划——自然保护区、生态保护红线和限制建设线。上述区域可视为生态保护潜力区。本文以在北京有分布的30种受胁鸟类为主要对象,探讨现有生态保护潜力区对这些物种栖息地的覆盖程度,并对如何改善上述受胁鸟类栖息地的保护状况进行了建议。根据物种对栖息地的选择,基于高分辨率卫片解译的土地利用类型图,利用最大熵模型(MaxEnt)掩膜栖息地分布图,得到各受胁鸟类的预测空间分布。叠加这些分布获得北京受胁鸟类丰富度分布格局并进行验证。依据物种丰富度高低,将受胁鸟类栖息地划分为一至四级。同时,依据地表覆盖类型和人类活动强度高低将北京市域划分为城市建成区、乡村生境区和自然生境区。分别计算3类保护潜力区对上述3区以及4级栖息地的覆盖面积比例。结果表明:(1)95.64%的一级关键栖息地和86.32%的二级关键栖息地分布在乡村生境区,但仅有0.69%和15.15%的乡村生境区分别被自然保护区和生态红线覆盖;(2)未受到自然保护区和生态保护红线覆盖的一、二级关键栖息地主要为水域和沼泽地等湿地、高覆盖度草地和部分耕地,以及含有较高比例水体的大型城市绿地。基于以上结果,我们建议能否至少在一定区域内试行如下保护措施:(1)严格保护湿地及其周边的高覆盖度草地面积不减少;(2)维持基本农田规模和粮食种植模式;(3)将乡村生境区位于河道附近的水域、沼泽地、高覆盖草地和灌木林纳入生态保护红线范围;(4)在公园绿地中划定生物多样性保护区;(5)优化平原地区林地结构。以上措施将使北京的受胁鸟类栖息地得到更好保护,为中国东部人口密集区生物多样性保护提供示范。

关键词: 受胁鸟类栖息地, 生物多样性保护, 保护潜力区, 乡村生境区, 湿地, 城市绿地, 北京

Abstract: To practice biodiversity protection in highly populated metropolises is doubtlessly playing an important role in the effort of global biodiversity conservation. The metropolitan Beijing is such a big city both for the human population and biodiversity clusters it sustained. In metropolitan Beijing, three categories, representing different level of conservation management, have so far been administratively delimited, that is, the nature reserves, the ecological red line, and the construction control line-which, as a hole, represents for the potential areas for conservation (PAC). In this study, 30 recently recorded threatened bird species were selected as the bio-indicators to explore the coverage of those species’ current habitats by the existing PAC. Based on each selected species’ habitat preferences, we calculated the species distribution models, combined with the land use and land cover map, the potential distribution map for each species was generated. Then, by overlaying those maps, the global distribution pattern in Beijing for our selected threatened bird species was obtained, enabled us to calculate the species richness at any interested sites within our study area. Finally, based on the species richness map of those threatened bird species, we ranked all habitats as four grades (with the most important habitat being grade Ⅰ) based on the number of endangered species sustained by them, also, urban, rural, and natural areas were classified based on the intensity of urban land use and human activities, which enabled us to calculate the coverage of our ranked key habitats and different urbanization gradient by each of the three types of PAC. The results showed that: 1) 95.64% of grade Ⅰ and 86.32% of grade Ⅱ habitats are within the rural areas, whereas merely 0.69% of the rural areas is covered by nature reserves and 15.15% by the ecological redline; 2) The defined key habitats ranked as grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ but not yet under the umbrella of either the nature reserves or the ecological redline are mainly wetlands (waterbodies and marshlands), high coverage grasslands and farmlands, as well as some large–scale green patches in urban area with large waterbodies. Based on the above results, suggestions for conservation practice were offered as: 1) to preserve the wetlands and the high coverage grasslands surrounding the urban cores efficiently; 2) to maintain the scale of basic farmland and food crop planting on them; 3) to bring all the waterbodies, marshlands, and high coverage grasslands alongside rivers into the ecological redline area; 4) to delimit biodiversity conservation zones in large urban greenspaces such as major urban parks; 5) to optimize the structure of woodland communities in rural and urban areas to satisfy the habitat needs of some specialist species. We believe that such conservation practices will provide citizens of Beijing with a more diverse avian communities, and the effort could be a good case for biodiversity conservation in other major cities of China to follow.

Key words: Habitats of threatened birds, Biodiversity conservation, Potential areas for conservation, Rural habitat, Wetland, Urban green spaces, Metropolitan Beijing