生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 477-487.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020034

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

农田节肢动物不同取样方法的综合比较

段美春1, 覃如霞1, 张宏斌2, 陈宝雄2,*(), 金彬3, 张松泊3, 任少鹏4, 金树权4, 朱升海5, 华家宁5, 刘云慧6, 宇振荣6   

  1. 1 西南大学农学与生物科技学院, 重庆 400715
    2 农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站, 北京 100125
    3 宁波市农产品质量安全管理总站, 浙江宁波 315012
    4 宁波市农业科学研究院, 浙江宁波 315040
    5 宁波天胜农牧发展有限公司, 浙江宁波 315012
    6 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-03 接受日期:2020-06-09 出版日期:2021-04-20 发布日期:2021-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈宝雄
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41901218);国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFC0507203);中央高校基本科研业务费(XDJK2019C098)

Comprehensive comparison of different sampling methods for arthropod diversity in farmland

Meichun Duan1, Ruxia Qin1, Hongbin Zhang2, Baoxiong Chen2,*(), Bin Jin3, Songbo Zhang3, Shaopeng Ren4, Shuquan Jin4, Shenghai Zhu5, Jianing Hua5, Yunhui Liu6, Zhenrong Yu6   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715
    2 Rural Energy and Environment Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125
    3 Ningbo Agricultural Products Quality and Safety Management Station, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315012
    4 Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315040
    5 Ningbo Tiansheng Farming Development Co., Ltd, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315012
    6 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2020-02-03 Accepted:2020-06-09 Online:2021-04-20 Published:2021-04-20
  • Contact: Baoxiong Chen
  • About author:* E-mail: cbxiong@126.com

摘要:

农田节肢动物多样性具有病虫害控制、传粉等价值, 选择一种或多种适宜、准确且高效的取样方法和指示类群来衡量农田节肢动物多样性是一项基础性工作。本文通过地表陷阱法、挂盆陷阱法、扫网法、目测计数法和吸虫器法在有机管理和常规管理农田区的不同农业生境类型中取样, 比较不同方法对不同生物类群的捕获效率、经济成本、响应敏感性等。研究发现在捕获效率方面, 地陷法和挂盆法最高, 其次是扫网法, 而吸虫器法和目测计数法较差。挂盆法对步甲、蜘蛛、蜂类和瓢虫类群的捕获效率较佳。陷阱法主要适用于蜘蛛和步甲的取样, 扫网法也可用于蜘蛛和瓢虫的取样。在经济成本方面, 地陷法的成本最低, 扫网法的总成本最高。每种取样方法下仅有个别类群个体数量具有较好的响应敏感性, 如地陷法的蜘蛛目个体数和步甲科个体数、挂盆法的总个体数、蜂类个体数和瓢虫科个体数、扫网法的直翅目个体数和半翅目个体数等。在此基础上, 综合类群经济价值, 操作难易, 类群鉴定难度, 被动取样程度, 是否受取样人影响等比较发现: 地陷法对步甲和蜘蛛的取样的综合效果最佳, 而不同取样方法下多种类群的组合能更好地监测和评价农田节肢动物多样性的整体情况。地陷法捕获步甲或/和蜘蛛以及挂盆法调查蜂类的组合是基于本研究得出的调查农田节肢动物多样性的最佳组合。

关键词: 节肢动物, 取样方法, 农田生物多样性, 农田生态系统, 农业昆虫

Abstract

Aims: Arthropod biodiversity in farmlands has considerable value in terms of pest control, pollination, and other ecological services. To adequately assess arthropod biodiversity in farmlands, a fundamental step to select appropriate, accurate, and efficient sampling methods and identify appropriate indicator taxa.

Methods: Here, we compared several arthropod sampling methods in different types of agricultural habitats within organic managed and conventional managed farmland, including the surface trap cup method, coloured pan traps, the sweeping method, visual counting, and the vacuum-suction method. We compared the capture efficiency, economic costs, and response sensitivity of each method for different species assemblages.

Results: We found that the surface trap cup method and coloured pan traps had the highest capture efficiency, followed by the sweeping method, the vacuum-suction method, and visual counting, which had the lowest capture efficiency. Coloured pan traps was more efficient at capturing carabids, spiders, bees, and ladybugs. The surface trap cup method was mainly applicable to sampling ground spiders and carabids. The sweeping method was also effective at sampling spiders and ladybugs. In terms of economic costs, the most economical method was the surface trap cup method, which was used to capture carabids or spiders. The sweeping method had the highest cost due to its low capture efficiency of spiders. Sampling methods varied in their response sensitivity and were reasonably able to estimate abundances only of certain taxa (e.g., the number of spiders and carabids by the surface trap cup method, the total number of specimens, the number of bees, and the number of ladybugs by coloured pan traps, and the number of Orthoptera and Hemiptera by the sweeping method).

Conclusion: We further compared sampling methods after taking into account the economic value of the taxon, the difficulty of sampling operation, the difficulty of taxon identification, the degree of passive sampling, and whether the taxon was influenced by different individuals conducting the sampling. The most comprehensive method was the surface trap cup method targeting carabids and spiders. Using a combination of different sampling methods for multiple taxa is recommended to comprehensively evaluate and monitor overall farmland arthropod biodiversity, and our results suggest that the best combination includes sampling carabids and spiders using the surface trap cup method and sampling bees using coloured pan traps.

Key words: arthropod, sampling methods, farmland biodiversity, agricultural ecosystem, agricultural insect