生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (11): 1288-1295.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016047

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黄顶菊凋落物分解对节肢动物群落结构的影响

晏静1,2, 张国良1, 张瑞海1, 宋振1, 赵晓红1, 刘玉升2, 付卫东1,*()   

  1. 1 .中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081
    2.山东农业大学植物保护学院, 山东泰安 271018
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-18 接受日期:2016-04-15 出版日期:2016-11-20 发布日期:2016-12-14
  • 通讯作者: 付卫东
  • 基金资助:
    公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201103027)

The effect of Flaveria bidentis litter decomposition on the structure of arthropod communities

Jing Yan1,2, Guoliang Zhang1, Ruihai Zhang1, Zhen Song1, Xiaohong Zhao1, Yusheng Liu2, Weidong Fu1,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
    2 College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong 271018;
  • Received:2016-02-18 Accepted:2016-04-15 Online:2016-11-20 Published:2016-12-14
  • Contact: Fu Weidong

摘要:

选择黄顶菊(Flaveria bidentis)入侵的林地、农田、荒地、沟渠等4种生境作为调查样地, 比较黄顶菊与本地植物凋落物的分解速率及凋落物分解对节肢动物群落结构的影响。于2014年10月凋落物高峰期在各样地内分别搜集黄顶菊与本地植物的凋落物, 每种凋落物称取20 g装入尼龙网分解袋中, 放入各生境。2015年的每个月将不同生境不同处理凋落袋各取回10袋, 用Tullgren法分离节肢动物。 4种生境共捕获17,466头, 隶属8纲18目, 4种生境的优势类群皆为蜱螨目和啮目。其中, 林地、农田、荒地、沟渠4种生境处理组中节肢动物数量分别为1,698头, 1,838头, 2,631头, 3,413头, 分别比对照组高18%, 53%, 22%, 11%。多数月份黄顶菊凋落物中的节肢动物丰富度及多样性指数高于同生境对照组, 并且在黄顶菊生长盛期差异显著; 黄顶菊凋落物的分解速率高于对照植物分解速率, 且各月份凋落物分解速率动态与节肢动物数量变化动态呈显著相关。黄顶菊凋落物对节肢动物的影响与人为干扰程度有关, 这种影响在人为干扰较小的荒地与沟渠生境中更为明显。综上所述, 黄顶菊凋落物的分解改变了节肢动物群落结构, 并引起节肢动物多样性的升高。

关键词: 黄顶菊, 凋落物, 分解, 节肢动物, 生物多样性

Abstract

An investigation was conducted between fall 2014 and 2015 to illustrate litter decomposition of the non-native plant species Flaveria bidentis and its effects on the structure of local arthropod communities. The survey was implemented in four different habitats, including forestland, cultivated fields, uncultivated land and ditches, which were all invaded by F. bidentis. The collection yielded a total number of 17,466 individuals belonging to 8 classes from 18 orders dominated by Arachnoidea and Psocoptera. In all habitat types, the numbers of arthropod individuals collected from F. bidentis treatments were noticeably more than those collected from neighboring plants as a control treatment (by 11-53%). Throughout the survey season, species richness and diversity index of arthropods were usually higher in the F. bidentis litter than those in the control, and reached significant levels at the peak of F. bidentis growth. Results also showed that F. bidentis litter decomposed faster than the litter of neighboring plants. Other results also suggested that the effects of F. bidentis litter on arthropod might be associated with the extent of human disturbance, indicating that habitats rarely visited by humans such as uncultivated land and ditches might be affected more than forestland and cultivated fields, which had greater intensity of human activity. In summary, the invasion of F. bidentis changes the community structure of arthropods and increases the diversity of arthropods in four habitat types.

Key words: Flaveria bidentis, litter, decomposition, arthropods, biodiversity