生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1266-1275.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020011

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国外国家公园教育利用研究进展与启示

陈东军1,2, 钟林生1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-09 接受日期:2020-04-19 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 钟林生
  • 作者简介:E-mail: zhongls@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506401);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(SQ2019QZKK2001)

Educational use in global national parks: Review and implications

Dongjun Chen1,2, Linsheng Zhong1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2020-01-09 Accepted:2020-04-19 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Linsheng Zhong

摘要:

教育是国家公园的主要功能之一, 教育利用是国家公园的公益性和国家主导性要求。我国国家公园体制建设起步较晚, 国家公园教育利用的实践经验和理论探讨相对不足。本文基于Web of Science核心合集数据库相关文献, 系统回顾了国外国家公园教育利用的研究进展, 并对国内未来研究进行展望。21世纪以来, 国外的国家公园教育利用研究进展加快, 相关文献多发表在环境科学和地球科学类期刊, 研究内容主要包括教育资源评估以及教育目的、教育管理、教育成效及其影响因素。国家公园教育资源丰富, 教育价值评估和教育利用适宜性评价是对其合理利用及保护管理的前提。教育目的主要包括争取保护支持、缓解社区冲突、提供文化及教育服务和防范旅游伤害, 多样化的教育媒介使用及针对性的教育设计、良好的教育合作共同促进教育成效的最佳实现。教育成效围绕教育目标分类的认知/意识、情感/态度、行为等维度评估教育受众在教育前后的表现差异, 主要受个体特征与教育管理两方面因素影响。国外国家公园教育利用研究已初步形成研究内容体系, 并呈现研究区域集中、学科理论交叉、研究方法趋于定性与定量综合运用、研究内容丰富且涉及领域广等特点。本文提出未来中国应重点加强国家公园教育资源评价、教育内容体系、教育媒介应用、教育合作与管理、教育成效及其影响因素分析等研究议题。

关键词: 国家公园, 教育功能, 教育价值, 教育利用, 研究进展

Abstract

Education is one of the most important functions of national parks, and its use in national parks is underscored by the parks’ characteristics of public welfare and national ownership. China’s national park system was established only recently. Consequently, the practice and theory of educational use in China’s national parks is poorly understood. We analyze the available literature using the core compilation of Web of Science to systematically review educational use in national parks globally and to establish further research directions that can be pursued in China. Research on educational use in national parks has developed rapidly since the 21st century. Most relevant literature was published in environmental science and earth science journals. Research on educational use mainly focus on educational resources assessment, purpose, management, effectiveness, and their influencing factors. National parks are rich in educational resources, and the evaluation of educational potential and suitability are necessary for their appropriate utilization, protection, and management. Education mainly seeks to protection support, buffer community conflicts, provide cultural services, and increase visitor safety. The use of diversified media for education, targeted educational materials, and favorable cooperation are important factors that maximize the effectiveness of education programs. The evaluation of educational effectiveness on the cognition/awareness, emotions/attitudes, and behaviors is mainly influenced by individual characteristics and educational management. International research on educational use of national parks develop interdisciplinary theories, qualitative and quantitative comprehensive applications of research methods, and rich research content across a wide range of fields. Our review suggests that China should strengthen research and evaluation of educational resources, construct a set of educational content systems, use a diversity of educational approaches and media, facilitate educational cooperation and management, evaluate educational effectiveness programs, and analyze additional factors influencing educational use.

Key words: national park, educational function, educational value, educational use, research progress