生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 958-964.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019420

• 蝴蝶多样性观测专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

齐云山国家级自然保护区蝴蝶群落多样性

黄敦元1,*(), 黄世贵3, 王建皓3, 李红英1, 窦飞越1, 张可1, 朱祥龙3, 马方舟2,*()   

  1. 1. 重庆师范大学生命科学学院媒介昆虫重点实验室, 重庆 401331
    2. 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所/国家环境保护生物安全重点实验室, 南京 210042
    3. 江西省齐云山国家级自然保护区管理局, 江西赣州 341300
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-31 接受日期:2020-06-28 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-07-28
  • 通讯作者: 黄敦元,马方舟
  • 作者简介:. E-mail: huangdunyuan@126.com;
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0507206)

Diversity of butterfly communities in the Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve

Dunyuan Huang1,*(), Shigui Huang3, Jianhao Wang3, Hongying Li1, Feiyue Dou1, Ke Zhang1, Xianglong Zhu3, Fangzhou Ma2,*()   

  1. 1 Chongqing Key Laboratory of Vector Insects, College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment; National Key Laboratory of Biosafety, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
    3 Administration of Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341300
  • Received:2019-12-31 Accepted:2020-06-28 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-07-28
  • Contact: Dunyuan Huang,Fangzhou Ma

摘要:

为研究齐云山国家级自然保护区蝴蝶群落多样性, 2016年4月至2018年10月, 作者在江西齐云山国家级自然保护区不同生境选取5条长2,000 m的固定样线进行了每年6次、累计18次的蝶类多样性调查。共记录到蝴蝶6,946只, 隶属5科106属189种, 其中东洋界种类是优势类群(183种, 占总种数的96.8%)。蛱蝶科的种类最多(81种, 占42.9%), 其物种丰富度指数(R = 8.42)、多样性指数(H′= 3.21)和优势度指数(D = 0.60)较高, 属于优势类群。齐云山国家级自然保护区蝴蝶个体数从4月开始逐渐增加, 到6-7月基本稳定并维持到10月;物种数在4-10月基本稳定, 具有较高的多样性指数。保护区内不同生境观测样线的蝴蝶种类和数目有较大的差异: 针阔混交林的桐江样线蝴蝶种类(126种, 占66.7%)及数目(1,945只, 占28.2%)最多, 其物种丰富度指数(R = 16.51)最高; 常绿阔叶林的上十八垒样线蝴蝶数目相对较少(905只, 占13.0%), 但是蝴蝶种类相对较多(103种, 占54.5%), 所以多样性指数(H′= 3.93)和优势度指数(D = 0.85)较高; 农田和果园生境的三角潭样线由于生境简单且人为干扰强度较大, 蝴蝶物种数相对较少(97种, 占51.3%)。研究表明: 江西省齐云山国家级自然保护区的蝴蝶区系组成以东洋区为绝对主导的分布类型, 蝴蝶群落多样性与生境类型有明显的相关性, 季节性的农耕活动、除草剂农药的大量使用、寄主植物的大量砍伐等人类活动威胁到蝴蝶的多样性及蝶类群落结构的稳定性。

关键词: 齐云山国家级自然保护区, 蝴蝶多样性, 区系, 物种组成

Abstract:

To study the diversity of butterfly community, from April 2016 to October 2018, a butterfly diversity survey was conducted along five fixed-sample transects of 2,000 m each in different habitats within the Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve of Jiangxi Province. Transects were sampled six times per year and 18 times in total. A total of 6,946 butterflies was recorded, belonging to 189 species of 106 genera under 5 families, of which the Oriental was dominant group (183 species, 96.8%). The family Nymphalidae had the largest number of species (81 species, 42.9%) with a high richness index (R = 8.42), diversity index (H′= 3.21), and dominance index (D = 0.60), suggesting this was the dominant group. The number of butterflies in Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve gradually increased from April to May, stayed relatively stable from June to July, and remained until October. From April to October, the number of butterfly species was basically stable, with a high diversity index. However, there were significant differences in the species composition and distribution of butterflies across various habitats in the protected area. The Tongjiang transect of the mixed forest had the greatest number of butterfly species (126 species, 66.7%), the highest species richness index (R = 16.51), and the highest overall abundance (n = 1,945, 28.2%). In the evergreen broad-leaved forest of the Shangshibalei transect, a smaller abundance of butterflies was observed (n = 905, 13.0%), but there were more butterfly species (103 species, 54.5%), with a higher diversity index (H′= 3.93) and dominance index (D = 0.85). The number of butterfly species in the farmland/orchard habitat of the Sanjiaotan transect was relatively small (97 species, 51.3%), likely due to its simple habitat and high intensity of human disturbance. Our results show that the composition of butterfly fauna of Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province is dominated by species in the Oriental realm. The diversity of butterfly communities has a clear correlation with the type of habitat. Intensity of human activities, such as seasonal farming, heavy use of herbicides and pesticides, and massive cutting of host plants, threatens the diversity of butterflies and the stability of butterfly community structure.

Key words: Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve, butterfly diversity, fauna, species composition