生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 983-992.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019386

• 蝴蝶多样性观测专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

兴隆山国家级自然保护区不同生境的蝴蝶群落结构与种-多度分布

尚素琴1,*(), 吴兴波1, 王召龙1, 彭鹤年1, 周惠丽2, 张红勇2, 白映禄1   

  1. 1. 甘肃农业大学植物保护学院/甘肃省农作物病虫害生物防治工程实验室, 兰州 730070
    2. 甘肃兴隆山国家级自然保护区管理局, 甘肃榆中 730117
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-06 接受日期:2020-06-16 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-09-01
  • 通讯作者: 尚素琴
  • 作者简介:. E-mail: shangsq@gsau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护重大工程(SDZXWJZ012016034)

Butterfly community structure and species-abundance distribution in different habitats in the Xinglong Mountains National Nature Reserve

Suqin Shang1,*(), Xingbo Wu1, Zhaolong Wang1, Henian Peng1, Huili Zhou2, Hongyong Zhang2, Yinglu Bai1   

  1. 1 Biological Engineering Laboratory of Crop Diseases and Pests of Gansu Province, College of Plant Protection, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070
    2 Administration of Xinglong Mountains National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province, Yuzhong, Gansu 730117
  • Received:2019-12-06 Accepted:2020-06-16 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-09-01
  • Contact: Suqin Shang

摘要:

为明确甘肃兴隆山国家级自然保护区内的蝴蝶种类, 以及不同生境的蝴蝶群落结构与种-多度分布的变化情况, 在全部5个林场选取6条样线, 于2015-2018年连续4年采用样线法对保护区的蝴蝶进行调查和采集, 并分析了其多样性指数及种-多度分布。4年共采集蝴蝶标本5,719号, 经鉴定隶属8科69属120种。眼蝶科(3,093号)是保护区的优势类群, 喙蝶科仅采集到1号标本(朴喙蝶, Libythea lepita), 为保护区的稀有种类。其中, 各样线的种数、个体数、多样性指数以及物种丰富度表现为: 样线I最高, 样线IV次之, 说明其生境结构稳定, 环境良好, 适合蝶类生存; 样线III蜜源植物丰富, 各项指数较高; 样线V海拔较高, 各项指数较低; 样线II植物群落结构单一, 各项指数最低。相似性系数分析结果表明: 样线I和VI、III和IV、III和VI均为中等相似; 其余各样线间为中等不相似。区系分析结果表明: 古北种有63种, 占总种数的52.5%; 东洋种2种, 占总种数的1.7%; 广布种55种, 占总种数的45.8%。说明古北种占绝对优势, 且明显高于东洋种, 具有很强的地区代表性。种-多度分布分析结果表明: 样线I和IV呈现出对数正态分布, 模型拟合效果较好; 样线II和VI为非典型的对数级数模型, 符合生态位优先占领假说。说明不同生境以及人为干扰因素与蝶类多样性关系密切, 表现出单一生态系统蝴蝶群落的多样性指数较低, 复杂生态系统其多样性指数较高的特点。

关键词: 蝴蝶, 群落结构, 生物多样性指数, 种-多度分布, 兴隆山国家级自然保护区

Abstract:

In order to determine species abundance, abundance distribution, and changes in community structure of butterflies found in different habitats in Xinglong Mountains National Nature Reserve, there are six sampling transect lines in total were used in various habitats in the forest stations located within the reserve. Between 2015-2018, the butterfly community in the reserve was evaluated using the method of route tracking. A total of 5,719 butterfly specimens belonging to 120 species, 69 genera, and 8 families were collected and these data were used to determine the biodiversity index and species-abundance distribution. The results show that the family Satyridae was the dominant group while species of family Libytheidae were the rarest. Using species numbers, individual numbers, diversity index and species richness as primary metrics, the sampling transect lines performed as follows: line I ranked first, and line IV ranked second, indicating that these habitats have stable structure and ideal environments well-suited for butterfly survival; line III ranked next and had a high diversity index due an abundance of nectar plants, followed by line V which had a lower diversity index due to its location at a higher altitude; finally, line II was ranked lowest due to the simple plant community structure present. The similarity coefficient between line I and VI, III and IV, III and VI were moderately similar, while pairwise comparisons between all other line combinations were moderately dissimilar. The fauna analysis showed that there were 63 Palaearctic species, 2 Oriental species, and 55 widely distributed species, which accounted for 52.5%, 1.7%, and 45.8% of the total species, respectively. The Palaearctic species were dominant relative to the Oriental species, which had a strong regional representation. The results of the species-abundance distribution analysis found that line I and IV had lognormal distribution pattern with a good model fit and line II and VI were atypical logarithmic series model, which was in accordance with the niche-preemption hypothesis. Together, these results indicate that both different habitats and human disturbance correlate with butterfly diversity, seen most notably in the diversity indices which were lower in simple ecosystems and higher in complicated ecosystems.

Key words: butterfly, community structure, diversity index, species-abundance distribution, Xinglong Mountains National Nature Reserve