生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (12): 1379-1385.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019242

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遗传资源数字序列信息在生物多样性保护中的应用及对惠益分享制度的影响

李保平,薛达元()   

  1. 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-01 接受日期:2019-11-08 出版日期:2019-12-20 发布日期:2020-02-22
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元
  • 基金资助:
    中央民族大学双一流建设项目(YLDXXK201819);“铸牢中华民族共同体意识”研究生专项课题项目(GTTZX-2019-50);生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Application of digital sequence information in biodiversity research and its potential impact on benefit sharing

Baoping Li,Dayuan Xue()   

  1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2019-08-01 Accepted:2019-11-08 Online:2019-12-20 Published:2020-02-22
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan

摘要:

遗传资源数字序列信息是近年来DNA测序技术的产物, 目前已经渗透到生命科学和环境科学等领域。遗传资源数字序列信息的应用有助于解释生命的分子基础和进化理论, 为生物多样性的保护和可持续利用提供新的技术手段。随着《名古屋议定书》的生效和履行, 各缔约方对遗传资源惠益分享的认识逐步提高, 并采取有效的立法、行政等措施对本国的生物遗传资源进行管制。遗传数字序列信息作为一种特殊的非实物性质的信息资源, 将会给获取与惠益分享制度带来挑战。近几年, 遗传资源数字序列信息已成为《生物多样性公约》缔约方大会谈判的焦点议题。中国是生物多样性大国, 也是近年来生物技术发展较快的国家之一。中国作为《名古屋议定书》的缔约方, 应积极参与遗传资源数字序列信息相关的研究, 并应对由此带来的各种挑战。

关键词: 遗传资源数字序列信息, 生物多样性, 名古屋议定书, 惠益分享

Abstract:

Digital sequence information (DSI) on genetic resources is a product of unprecedented improvements in genetic sequencing technology in recent years. The application of genetic DSI can help to explain the molecular basis and evolutionary theory of life and provide new technical methods for the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity. With the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol, the Conference of the Parties (COP) has gradually deepened their understanding of benefit-sharing and adopted effective legislative and administrative measures to control their biological genetic resources. As a special kind of “non-physical” information resource, the application of genetic digital sequence information will bring challenges to access systems and benefit sharing. In recent years, genetic digital sequence information has become the focus of negotiations for CBD. China, as a large country with rich biodiversity, a contracting party of Nagoya Protocol, and also one of the countries with rapid development in biotechnology in recent years, should strive to participate in relevant research on this topic and actively respond to the challenges arising therewithin.

Key words: digital sequence information on genetic resources, biodiversity, Nagoya Protocol, benefit sharing