生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (12): 1295-1302.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017071

• 生物入侵专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

土壤微生物与植物入侵: 研究现状与展望

付伟1, 王宁1, 庞芳1, 黄玉龙1, 吴俊1, 祁珊珊1, 戴志聪1,2,*(), 杜道林1,2   

  1. 1 .江苏大学环境与安全工程学院环境生态研究所, 江苏镇江 212013
    2 .江苏大学农业工程研究院, 江苏镇江 212013
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-06 接受日期:2017-12-20 出版日期:2017-12-20 发布日期:2017-12-10
  • 通讯作者: 戴志聪
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31600326, 31570414)、国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1200100)、江苏省自然科学基金(BK20150504)、中国博士后基金(2016M590416, 2017T100329)和江苏大学科研立项项目(16A157)

Soil microbiota and plant invasions: current and future

Wei Fu1, Ning Wang1, Fang Pang1, Yulong Huang1, Jun Wu1, Shanshan Qi1, Zhicong Dai1,2,*(), Daolin Du1,2   

  1. 1 Institute of Environment and Ecology, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013
    2 Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013
  • Received:2017-03-06 Accepted:2017-12-20 Online:2017-12-20 Published:2017-12-10
  • Contact: Dai Zhicong

摘要:

入侵植物在全球范围的快速扩张导致了全球生物多样性的快速丧失, 这使得对其入侵机理的研究更具有现实性与紧迫性。在入侵生态学中, 以往的关注重点多集中于宏观有机体上, 但是越来越多的研究表明, 入侵植物与土壤微生物之间的相互作用关系深刻影响着入侵植物的适应性和竞争力, 在其成功入侵的过程中发挥着重要的作用。现阶段, 在土壤微生物参与的植物入侵研究中, 将微生物分为3个主要类群, 即病原微生物(microbial pathogens)、共生微生物(mutualistic microbes)和腐生微生物(saprotrophic microbes)。本文从该3个类群出发总结了土壤微生物与入侵植物之间的相互关系, 探讨其对外来植物入侵性的影响。另外, 以往的研究多单独围绕总体层次或某一维度而展开, 往往不能深入系统地揭示外来植物的入侵机理。然而, 在陆地生态系统中, 植物与微生物的相互作用关系主要始于根系, 植物的根际为微生物提供了多样的异质性栖息环境(根际土壤、根表和内生环境), 并塑造了其功能的多样性。作者建议, 今后关于土壤微生物对入侵植物影响的研究, 在借鉴快速发展的高通量测序技术拓展研究的深度和广度的同时, 同样需要注意根际微生境与宏观功能特性的结合与统一, 并建立系统而又可重复性的研究模式, 从现象特征的描述向机理阐述方向发展。

关键词: 入侵植物, 入侵机制, 土壤微生物, 根际环境, 微生物分子生态学

Abstract:

Profound threats on global biodiversity caused by the expansion and accumulation of invasive species substantiate the urgent need to understand their invasion mechanisms. While most studies of invasive plants have focused on macro-organisms, it has become increasingly clear that microorganisms are pervasive and play central roles in successful invasion processes of exotic plants. According to studies examining soil microbes and invasive plants, we discuss the effects of invasive plants on soil microbial communities by dividing them into three separate groups, namely microbial pathogens, mutualistic microbes, and saprotrophic microbes. Roots are the primary site for interactions with microbes, and the rhizosphere is the largest reservoir of known microbial diversity. The rhizosphere provided a heterogeneity microhabitat at the root-soil interface (rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and endorhizosphere) and shapes the habitat into different functions. However, previous studies have tended to focus on either the single dimension or at the hole level, which fails to explain the scope and depth of the phenomenon. When examining this issue, we propose that future studies of the interactions between rhizosphere microbes and invasive plant should combine the root elaborate microhabitat and macro-functional traits. It is essential to construct a systematic and reproducible research framework by using high-throughput DNA sequencing technology and corresponding bioinformatic tools, to switch the mode of research from the description and prediction of the phenomenon into the elaboration of the mechanism in the field of plant invasion.

Key words: invasive plant, invasion mechanisms, soil microbes, rhizosphere microhabitat, microbial molecular ecology