生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 598-609.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015331

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通过红色名录评估研究中国内陆鱼类受威胁现状及其成因

曹亮1, 张鹗1,*(), 臧春鑫2, 曹文宣1   

  1. 1中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072
    2中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-27 接受日期:2016-01-28 出版日期:2016-05-20 发布日期:2018-08-09
  • 通讯作者: 张鹗
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项(Y31Z01)

Evaluating the status of China’s continental fish and analyzing their causes of endangerment through the red list assessment

Liang Cao1, E Zhang1,*(), Chunxin Zang2, Wenxuan Cao1   

  1. 1 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2015-11-27 Accepted:2016-01-28 Online:2016-05-20 Published:2018-08-09
  • Contact: Zhang E

摘要:

根据已有的基础资料, 采用IUCN评估等级和标准, 对中国目前已鉴定的1,443种内陆鱼类受威胁现状进行了评估。评估结果显示, 1,443种内陆鱼类中, 灭绝3种、区域灭绝1种、极危65种、濒危101种、易危129种、近危101种、无危454种和数据缺乏589种。同已有的IUCN评估结果相比, 本次被评估的物种数目多, 受威胁物种大幅度增加, 其数目达295种, 占已知中国内陆鱼类总数的20.44%, 低于全球平均值(29%)。属于灭绝等级的鱼类是大鳞白鱼(Anabarilius macrolepis)、异龙鲤(Cyprinus yilongensis)和茶卡高原鳅(Triplophysa cakaensis); 属于区域灭绝等级的鱼类是长颌北鲑(Stenodus nelma)。鲤科是受威胁物种数最多的科, 其中裂腹鱼亚科和鲤亚科的种类受威胁程度最高。长江上游和珠江上游受威胁物种最多, 是受威胁最严重的地区。中国内陆鱼类受威胁的主要因素为河流筑坝、生境退化或丧失、酷渔滥捕和引进外来种。列入数据缺乏等级的鱼类较多, 占中国内陆鱼类的40.82%, 表明对中国内陆鱼类物种多样性了解不充分, 需要加强野外调查以积累基础资料。

关键词: 内陆鱼类, 红色名录, 受威胁物种, 致危因子

Abstract:

Continental fishes (totaling 1,443 species) in China were assessed for their status based on available data utilizing the IUCN Redlist Categories and Criteria. Among these, 3 species were listed as Extinct, 1 as Regionally Extinct, 65 as Critically Endangered, 101 as Endangered, 129 as Vulnerable, 101 as Near Threatened, 454 as of Least Concern, and 589 were Data Deficient. Both the number of species assessed here and the number of species classified as threatened, were greater than those already identified by the IUCN. There were 295 threatened species, which accounted for 20.44% of the total number of currently identified continental fish in China. This ratio was lower than the known worldwide average. Three extinct species identified were Anabarilius macrolepis, Cyprinus yilongensis and Triplophysa cakaensis, and Stenodus nelma was found to be regionally extinct in China. Among all families assessed, Cyprinidae had the highest number of threatened species. Within this family, Schizothroracinae and Cyprininae were the two most threatened subfamilies. The upper Yangtze River and the upper Pearl River were two areas with the highest number of threatened species. Major threats to continental fish in China can be classified into four categories: dam construction, habitat degradation, over-fishing, and introducing of alien species. A total of 589 species (40.82% of continental fishes in China) were listed as Data Deficient. This large number indicated insufficient information regarding continental fishes in China, therefore warranting the need for basic data collection on continental fishes through field surveys.

Key words: continental fishes, red list, threatened species, threat