生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (12): 1591-1598.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021403

• 国家重点保护野生植物专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

从《国家重点保护野生植物名录》看我国裸子植物保护

杨永*(), 檀超, 杨智   

  1. 南京林业大学生物与环境学院, 南方现代林业协同创新中心, 南京 210037
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-08 接受日期:2021-12-20 出版日期:2021-12-20 发布日期:2021-12-22
  • 通讯作者: 杨永
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: yangyong@njfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31970205);国家自然科学基金(31770211);江苏省自然科学基金(BK20211279);南京林业大学水杉英才项目

Conservation of gymnosperms in China: Perspectives from the List of National Key Protected Wild Plants

Yong Yang*(), Chao Tan, Zhi Yang   

  1. Co-Innovation Center for the Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
  • Received:2021-10-08 Accepted:2021-12-20 Online:2021-12-20 Published:2021-12-22
  • Contact: Yong Yang

摘要:

本文比较了2021版和1999版《国家重点保护野生植物名录》(简称《名录》)中裸子植物的物种收录情况变化, 并分析了2021版《名录》保护物种的地理分布格局。结果发现, 2021版《名录》总体上数量增加: 科水平上增加了罗汉松科和麻黄科, 科的保护率达87.5%, 仅买麻藤科没有被列入保护的物种; 属水平上删除了落叶松属(Larix), 增加了麻黄属(Ephedra)、罗汉松属(Podocarpus)和金柏属(Xanthocyparis), 属的保护率达67.6%; 种水平上共收录106种裸子植物, 物种保护率达38.7%。1999版《名录》科、属、种的保护率分别为62.5%、62.2%和30.0%。从地理分布来看, 裸子植物保护物种主要分布在南方, 云南、广西、贵州、湖南和四川最多, 与国产裸子植物的地理分布格局相似。为了提升国家相关部门的物种保护和执法能力, 我们建议: (1)尽快建立咨询专家库, 梳理并完善物种保护行动方案和保护技术; (2)建立保护物种图像库, 使得智能识别技术为保护提供更好的技术支撑; (3)尽快建立并完善保护物种的DNA条形码参考数据库, 提升保护物种快速鉴定能力; (4)建议国家有关部门支持裸子植物针对性野外调查和分类学研究工作, 为裸子植物保护执法提供更好的支撑, 也为新的红色名录评估和保护行动计划制订提供依据。

关键词: 中国, 濒危物种, 裸子植物, 保护, 红色名录, 《国家重点保护野生植物名录》

Abstract

Aims: We studied the distribution pattern of protected gymnosperms and conducted a comparison of taxonomic changes between the last version (1999) and the recently released version (2021) of the List of National Key Protected Wild Plants (LNKPWP ver. 2021). Our aim was to unveil the characteristics of protected species and identify the gap between protection and taxonomic studies of gymnosperms in China.
Methods: We compiled all gymnosperm species listed in the 2021 List, conducted an analytic comparison using the Microsoft Access (ver. 2016), and generated maps of species’ distribution patterns using ArcGIS.
Results: We found that the number of protected gymnosperms has increased in comparison to those listed in 1999, although some families and genera have been removed. To summarize: (1) at the family level, with the inclusion of Podocarpaceae and Ephedraceae the percentage of protected families has increased to 87.5% from 62.5%, with Gnetaceae being the only family that is not represented on the 2021 List; (2) at the genus level, the inclusion of three additional genera Ephedra, Podocarpus, Xanthocyparis and the exclusion of one genus Larix. The percentage of protected genera has increased to 67.6% of total gymnosperm genera in China in comparison to 62.2% on the 1999 List; (3) at the species level, the percentage of protected species is ca. 38.7% of total gymnosperm species in China in comparison to vs. 30% of the 1999 List. The protected species are not evenly distributed in the country, with more species in Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, and Sichuan, whereas a number of northern provinces have no protected species, e.g. Xinjiang, Qinghai, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, and Beijing.
Conclusions: To enhance the capability of species protection and law enforcement by relevant government departments, we suggest: (1) establish a specialist database as soon as possible, as well as revise and improve the action plans and protection techniques for each species; (2) establish a comprehensive photo bank of protected species to provide better technical support for species identification using cell phone applications; (3) establish and complete a reference database of DNA barcodes of each protected species to improve the speed and accuracy of their identification. We also suggest that the government should initiate projects to conduct targeted field investigations of gymnosperm species because the percentage of threatened gymnosperms is higher compared to other groups of threatened plants in China, essential biological data for gymnosperm species is lacking, and several taxonomic problems remain. The new investigation will lay an important foundation for a new round of red list assessment of gymnosperm species and assist in developing appropriate action plans for their protection.

Key words: China, endangered species, gymnosperms, protection, red list, List of National Key Protected Wild Plants